vif Antibody

Code CSB-PA303185XA01HKM
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Product Details

Full Product Name
Rabbit anti-Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1) vif Polyclonal antibody
Uniprot No.
Target Names
Alternative Names
vifVirion infectivity factor antibody; Vif antibody; SOR protein) [Cleaved into: p17; p7] antibody
Raised in
Species Reactivity
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1)
Recombinant Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1) vif protein
Immunogen Species
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate BRU/LAI) (HIV-1)
Purification Method
Antigen Affinity Purified
It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
Preservative: 0.03% Proclin 300
Constituents: 50% Glycerol, 0.01M PBS, pH 7.4
Tested Applications
ELISA, WB (ensure identification of antigen)
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Value-added Deliverables
① 200ug * antigen (positive control);
② 1ml * Pre-immune serum (negative control);
Quality Guarantee
① Antibody purity can be guaranteed above 90% by SDS-PAGE detection;
② ELISA titer can be guaranteed 1: 64,000;
③ WB validation with antigen can be guaranteed positive;
Lead Time
Made-to-order (14-16 weeks)

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Target Background

Counteracts the innate antiviral activity of host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G. Forms a complex with host APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G thus preventing the entry of these lethally hypermutating enzymes into progeny virions. Recruits an active E3 ubiquitin ligase complex composed of elongin BC, CUL5, and RBX2 to induce polyubiquitination of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. In turn, they are directed to the 26S proteasome for degradation. Vif interaction with APOBEC3G also blocks its cytidine deaminase activity in a proteasome-independent manner, suggesting a dual inhibitory mechanism. May interact directly with APOBEC3G mRNA in order to inhibit its translation. Seems to play a role in viral morphology by affecting the stability of the viral nucleoprotein core. Finally, Vif also contributes to the G2 cell cycle arrest observed in HIV infected cells.
Gene References into Functions
  1. two stem-loop structures within the 5'-untranslated region of A3G mRNA are crucial for translation inhibition by Vif in HIV-infected cells, and most Vif alleles neutralize A3G translation efficiently PMID: 27996044
  2. Vif was also unable to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest in other nonhuman cell types, including cells derived from nonhuman primates, leading to propose that one or more human-specific cofactors underpin Vif's ability to modulate the cell cycle. PMID: 29321323
  3. Moreover, using a CBF-beta loss-of-function mutant, the authors demonstrated that the interaction between CBF-beta and Vif was not sufficient for Vif assistance; a region including F68 in CBF-beta was also required for the stability and function of Vif. PMID: 28516844
  4. Here, the authors show that APOBEC3G polyubiquitination is essential for its HIV-1 vif-induced degradation. PMID: 27297094
  5. cyclin F functions as an intrinsic cellular regulator of HIV-1 Vif and has a negative regulatory effect on the maintenance of viral infectivity by restoring APOBEC3G expression. PMID: 28184007
  6. The overall conclusion from this study is that it may not be possible to select Vif-null viruses capable of replicating in relevant HIV target cells in vivo thus highlighting the critical role of Vif for HIV-1 replication. PMID: 28131088
  7. Vif stabilization by CBFbeta is mainly caused by impairing MDM2-mediated degradation. PMID: 27758855
  8. using novel human A3G transgenic mouse models that express varying levels of A3G as is seen in humans, this study clearly demonstrates that polymorphic vif alleles can have differential anti-A3G activity in vivo PMID: 27363431
  9. The authors found that multiple Vif residues are involved in the extensive N-terminal Vif-CBFbeta interaction and that the (5)WQVMIVW(11) region of Vif is the major determinant. PMID: 28302150
  10. HIV-1 Vif has evolved to utilize three dispersed surfaces for recognizing three types of interfaces on APOBEC3h proteins under certain structural constraints. PMID: 28336404
  11. virus adaptation and computational studies to interrogate the APOBEC3F-Vif interface and build a robust structural model; taken together with mutagenesis results, propose a wobble model to explain how HIV-1 Vif has evolved to bind different APOBEC3 enzymes PMID: 26628363
  12. Identified Vif mRNA as a new substrate for Pokeweed antiviral protein and demonstrate that derepression of innate immunity against HIV-1 contributes to its antiviral activity. PMID: 26275799
  13. Six residues located within the conserved HIV-1 Vif F1-, F2-, and F3-box motifs are essential for both APOBEC3C and APOBEC3F degradation, and an additional four residues are uniquely required for APOBEC3F degradation. PMID: 26537685
  14. This study identifies a new cellular complex, HDAC6/A3G, involved in the autophagic degradation of Vif, and suggests that HDAC6 represents a new antiviral factor capable of controlling HIV-1 infectiveness by counteracting Vif and its functions. PMID: 26105074
  15. The existence and persistence of both types of HIV-1 Vif variant suggests the importance of APOBEC3H suppression and cell cycle regulation for HIV-1's survival in vivo. PMID: 25590520
  16. stable APOBEC3H haplotypes present as in vivo barriers to HIV-1 replication, that Vif is capable of adapting to these restrictive pressures, and that an evolutionary equilibrium has yet to be reached. PMID: 25411794
  17. This study unveils that HIV-1 Vif inhibits autophagy via interaction with LC3B independently of its action on APOBEC3G and, therefore, suggest a new function of this viral protein in restricting innate antiviral mechanisms. PMID: 25490467
  18. Vif continues to protect HIV-1 from the deleterious effects of APOBEC3G, even after packaging of APOBEC3G has occurred. PMID: 25304135
  19. These results provide important information on the assembly of the Vif-CUL5-E3 ubiquitin ligase and identify a new viV binding interface with CBF-beta at the C-terminus of HIV-1 Vif. PMID: 25424878
  20. HIV-1 Vpr and Vif were shown to bind to TBK1 and inhibit its autophosphorylation by binding of these proteins leading to a block in type I and III interferon induction. PMID: 25855743
  21. The human APOBEC3G N-terminal domain is bound by HIV-1 Vif. PMID: 25984970
  22. CBF-beta promoted steady-state levels of HIV-1 Vif by inhibiting the degradation of HIV-1 Vif through the proteasome pathway. PMID: 25582776
  23. No single viral polymorphism could explain the reduced anti-APOBEC3G activity of elite controllers-derived Vif, suggesting that various combinations of minor polymorphisms may underlie these effects. PMID: 25717111
  24. Results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID: 25144404
  25. This approach identified the alpha3 and alpha4 helices of human APOBEC3F as important determinants of the interaction with HIV-1 Vif. PMID: 25142588
  26. The degradation efficiency of Vif correlated with both the binding strength of the APOBEC3-Vif interaction and the APOBEC3-Vif interface. PMID: 25275135
  27. N-terminal mutants of HIV-1 vif that demonstrated reduced Cul5 binding were also unable to degrade APOBEC3G as well as APOBEC3F. PMID: 24422669
  28. Vif-positive viruses with more host APOBEC3G expressed were found to have decreased virion infectivity ex vivo. PMID: 24146808
  29. Vif interaction with EloB-EloC may contribute to recruitment of CBF-beta to Vif, demonstrating that the EloB C-teminus may play a role in improving Vif function and that the over-expression of EloB results in Vif stabilization. PMID: 23988114
  30. study reports NMR solution structure of the Vif SOCS-ElonginBC (EloBC)complex; structure of the complex and biophysical studies provide insight into the function of Vif's proline-rich motif and reveal novel dynamic information on the Vif-EloBC interaction PMID: 24225024
  31. Authors propose that CBFbeta acts as a chaperone to stabilize HIV-1 Vif during and after synthesis and to facilitate interaction of Vif with cellular cofactors required for the efficient degradation of APOBEC3G. PMID: 24522927
  32. In the absence of CBFbeta, Vif does not bind Cul5, thus preventing the assembly of the E3 ligase complex. PMID: 24390320
  33. CBF-beta is critical for the formation of the Vif-ElonginB/ElonginC-Cul5 core E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. PMID: 24390335
  34. Catalytic activity of APOBEC3F is required for efficient restriction of Vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus 1. PMID: 24503066
  35. Vif conserved residues E88/W89 are crucial for CBFbeta binding. PMID: 24418540
  36. data reveal the structural basis for Vif hijacking of the CBF-beta and CUL5 E3 ligase complex, laying a foundation for rational design of novel anti-HIV drugs PMID: 24402281
  37. Vif derived from a subtype C molecular clone was less effective at overcoming A3G-mediated inhibition than Vif derived from either subtype B or CRF02_AG molecular clones. PMID: 23689841
  38. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the HIV-1 Vif residue I107 is important for its anti-APOBEC3G activity and viral replication, which may have implications for viral fitness in vivo. PMID: 23707381
  39. A3H-hapII is resistant to NL4-3 Vif while it is efficiently degraded by LAI Vif. PMID: 23469063
  40. These data indicate the importance of the HIV accessory proteins nef and vif as factors that contribute to the outcome of AIDS. PMID: 23417613
  41. Cellular APOBEC3G impairs the multimerization of the HIV-1 Vif protein. PMID: 23576497
  42. Vif co-encapsidation with APOBEC3G can promote sublethal mutagenesis of HIV-1 proviral DNA. PMID: 23316055
  43. These separation-of-function mutants demonstrate that HIV-1 Vif and the RUNX transcription factors interact with cellular CBFbeta on genetically distinct surfaces. PMID: 22725134
  44. Unusual Vif substitutions may be linked to HIV-1 attenuation in patients infected perinatally. PMID: 23080486
  45. Vif specifically binds the TAR and DIS sequences in the low nanomolar range. PMID: 22767258
  46. Authors revealed that different lengths and regions are required for CBFbeta to assist HIV-1 Vif or RUNX1. PMID: 23175372
  47. Vif binding to human APOBEC3C protein PMID: 23001005
  48. CBFbeta prestabilizes Vif((1-192)) relative to Vif((95-192)), consistent with a stronger interaction of Cul5 with Vif's C-terminal Zn(2+)-binding motif. PMID: 23098073
  49. These data suggest that Vif and A3G are not serine/threonine phosphorylated in human cells and phosphorylation is not linked to their functional activities. PMID: 22894923
  50. Viral diversity and diversification of major non-structural genes vif, vpr, vpu, tat exon 1 and rev exon 1 during primary HIV-1 subtype C infection. PMID: 22590503

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Subcellular Location
Host cytoplasm. Host cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Virion.
Protein Families
Primate lentivirus group Vif protein family
Database Links

KEGG: vg:155459

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