The Human endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 (ESM1) ELISA kit enables quantification of human DEFA1 in solution, e.g. in serum, plasma, and tissue homogenates. The product is more flexible to set up the ELISA assay. ESM1, also known as endocan, is a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan expressed and secreted primarily by the endothelial cells in the lung and kidneys. ESM1 expression in endothelial and epithelial cells is upregulated by TNF-α, IL-1β, and VEGF, but downregulated by IL-4 and IFN-γ. Plasma ESM1 levels are increased in patients with inflammatory disorders like sepsis, suggesting that ESM1 could be a potential biomarker for endothelial activation or dysfunction. EMS1 is frequently overexpressed in many cancer types and is related to tumor growth and angiogenesis during tumor progression. Tung-Wei Hung etc. proposed that overexpression of ESM1 promotes cell migration and renal fibrosis progression by modulating the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) pathways in vitro and in vivo.
The assay is based on the Sandwich ELISA mechanism and enzyme-substrate chromogenic reaction. The intensity of the color is proportional to the ESM1 content in the sample. This kit has been verified with nanogram-level of sensitivity, high specificity, precision, good linearity, high recovery, and lot-to-lot consistency. More validation details are described in the product instructions.