Recombinant Human Proepiregulin [Cleaved into: Epiregulin protein(EREG) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002621HU
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Product Details

Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by a cell proliferation assay using murine Balb/c 3T3 cells is less than 2 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >5.0x105 IU/mg.
Target Names EREG
Uniprot No. O14944
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names Epiregulin; EPR; ER ; Ereg; EREG_HUMAN; Proepiregulin
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 60-108aa
Complete Sequence VAQVSITKCS SDMNGYCLHG QCIYLVDMSQ NYCRCEVGYT GVRCEHFFL
Mol. Weight 5.6 kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR and ERBB4. Stimulates EGFR and ERBB4 tyrosine phosphorylation
Gene References into Functions
  1. in Caco-2 CFTR-shRNA cells, the EGFR ligand EREG is overexpressed due to an active IL-1beta autocrine loop that indirectly activates EGFR, constituting new signaling effectors for the CFTR signaling pathway, downstream of CFTR, Cl(-) , and IL-1beta. PMID: 29091309
  2. we showed that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) were constitutively activated in metastatic lung subtypes of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells, and that this activation was induced by autocrine expression of epiregulin PMID: 26958807
  3. Study shows how the EGFR ligands epiregulin (EREG) and epigen (EPGN) stabilize different dimeric conformations of the EGFR extracellular region. Results reveal how responses to different EGFR ligands are defined by receptor dimerization strength and signaling dynamics. These findings have broad implications for understanding receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling specificity. PMID: 28988771
  4. EREG and MMP-1 were found to be elevated in nasal polyp and uncinate tissues in patients with Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. PMID: 28398769
  5. upregulation of EREG expression through promoter demethylation might be an important means of activating the EGFR pathway during the genesis of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) and potentially other cancers. PMID: 27270421
  6. EREG and AREG are strongly regulated by methylation, and their expression is associated with CIMP status and primary tumour site. PMID: 27272216
  7. three-dimensional structure of the EPR antibody (the 9E5(Fab) fragment) in the presence and absence of EPR PMID: 26627827
  8. Together, these studies lead to identification of a novel pathway involving EREG and MMP-1 that contributes to the formation of early stage breast cancer PMID: 26215578
  9. These results suggested that EREG is one of the molecules involved in glioma malignancy PMID: 24470554
  10. Data indicate that the effects of epiregulin (EREG) and V-ATPase (TCIRG1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility, to the extent that they exist, are dependent on gene-gene interactions in West African populations. PMID: 24898387
  11. Patients homozygous for the minor allele A of EREG rs12641042 had a significantly higher 3-year survival rate than patients with allele C (HR 0.48; P=0.034), but significance was lost in multivariable analysis PMID: 25203737
  12. Epiregulin is a transcriptional target of TSC2 (tuberin). PMID: 24748662
  13. Epiregulin promotes the proliferation of liver progenitor cells and DNA synthesis by hepatocytes and is upregulated in the serum of patients with liver injury. PMID: 24812054
  14. Plasma HGF and EREG levels are associated with resistance to treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies in KRAS wild-type patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID: 24800946
  15. Data suggest that EREG (epiregulin), AREG (amphiregulin), and BTC (betacellulin) induced prostaglandin E2 production by induction of COX-2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) through MAP kinase signaling in granulosa cells. PMID: 24092824
  16. In pre-treated K-ras wild-type status colorectal cancer, patients with high EREG gene expression appear to benefit more from cetuximab therapy compared with low expression. PMID: 24335920
  17. EREG may contribute to glioma progression under the control of IRE1a. PMID: 24330607
  18. keratinocyte hyperproliferation in cholesteatoma is promoted through overexpression of epiregulin by subepithelial fibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma PMID: 23826119
  19. Depletion of Epiregulin with shRNA inhibited SCAP proliferation. PMID: 23829318
  20. Data indicate that epiregulin (EREG) expression significantly correlated with KRAS expression or KRAS copy number in KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. PMID: 22964644
  21. EREG-AREG and NRG1, which are members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, seem to modulate Bhecet's Disease susceptibility through main effects and gene-gene interactions PMID: 23625463
  22. we did not find a correlation between the presence of a K-ras mutation and the presence of Epiregulin and Amphiregulin in colon cancer tissue. PMID: 23885463
  23. Apical mistrafficking of EREG crystallizes an apical EGFR signaling complex that may be uncoupled from basolateral regulatory restraints leading to cell transformation. PMID: 23671122
  24. FBXL11 inhibited osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential in MSC cells by associating with BCOR, then increasing histone K4/36 methylation in Epiregulin promoter to repress Epiregulin transcription. PMID: 23074094
  25. EREG gene expression was low in 7 out of 11 gastric cancer cells and this downregulation was mediated by aberrant CpG methylation of the EREG promoter. PMID: 22508389
  26. Epiregulin (EREG) variation is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. PMID: 22170233
  27. Data suggest that expression status of AR and EPI mRNAs might be evaluated as dynamic predictors of response in KRAS WT patients receiving any cetuximab-based therapy. PMID: 21161326
  28. It is suggested that follow-up of the expression of Ep can serve as a reliable early indication of the development of ovarian cancer. PMID: 21769422
  29. Blockade of epiregulin reduced the growth of hTERT-BJ cells and colony formation of hTERT-transformed fibroblasts. Moreover, inhibition of epiregulin function in immortal hTERT-BJ cells triggered a senescence program. PMID: 12702554
  30. Epiregulin might be a more important tumor growth regulator of malignant fibrous histiocytoma through autocrine or paracrine pathways, when compared with betacellulin. PMID: 15274392
  31. upregulation of the epiregulin and amphiregulin expression is part of the signal transduction pathway which leads to ovulation and luteinization in the human ovary PMID: 15474502
  32. findings demonstrated that PGE2 may mimic LH action at least in part by the activation of amphiregulin and epiregulin biosynthesis in human granulosa cells PMID: 16888076
  33. epiregulin, COX2, and MMP1 and 2 collectively facilitate the assembly of new tumour blood vessels, the release of tumour cells into the circulation, and the breaching of lung capillaries by circulating tumour cells to seed pulmonary metastasis PMID: 17429393
  34. 1st report of EREG expression in breast cancer (45.5% of breast cancers studied). It is preferentially expressed in breast tumors co-expressing HER2/HER4. PMID: 17962208
  35. Epiregulin played an autocrine role in the proliferation of corneal epithelial cells presumably through cross-induction with other EGF family members. PMID: 18079685
  36. hamartomatous TSC skin tumors are induced by paracrine factors released by two-hit cells in the dermis, and proliferation with mTOR activation of the overlying epidermis is an effect of epiregulin PMID: 18292222
  37. Increased epiregulin is associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas PMID: 18497965
  38. Epiregulin has a protective effect against apoptosis in the human corpus luteum. PMID: 18835871
  39. The regulatory mechanism of epiregulin expression in Ki-ras-transformed 267B1 prostate epithelial cells was studied. PMID: 18948081
  40. Epiregulin expression correlates with advanced disease, is EGFR dependent, and confers invasive properties on non-small cell lung cancer cells. PMID: 19138957

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Subcellular Location Epiregulin: Secreted, extracellular space, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Proepiregulin: Cell membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein
Tissue Specificity In normal adults, expressed predominantly in the placenta and peripheral blood leukocytes. High levels were detected in carcinomas of the bladder, lung, kidney and colon.
Database Links

HGNC: 3443

OMIM: 602061

KEGG: hsa:2069

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000244869

UniGene: Hs.115263

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