Recombinant Human Prokineticin-1 protein (PROK1) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002671HU
Size $142
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Product Details

>98% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by a cell proliferation assay using bovine EJG cells is less than 2.0 μg/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >500 IU/mg.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Signal Transduction
Alternative Names
Black mamba toxin related protein; EG VEGF; EG-VEGF; EGVEGF; Endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor; Mambakine; PK1; PRK1; PROK1; PROK1_HUMAN; Prokineticin 1; Prokineticin-1
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Complete Sequence
Mol. Weight
9.7 kDa
Protein Length
Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info
Lyophilized powder
Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4, 0.02 % Tween-20
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
5-10 business days
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Potently contracts gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Induces proliferation, migration and fenestration (the formation of membrane discontinuities) in capillary endothelial cells derived from endocrine glands. Has little or no effect on a variety of other endothelial and non-endothelial cell types. Induces proliferation and differentiation, but not migration, of enteric neural crest cells. Directly influences neuroblastoma progression by promoting the proliferation and migration of neuroblastoma cells. Positively regulates PTGS2 expression and prostaglandin synthesis. May play a role in placentation. May play a role in normal and pathological testis angiogenesis.
Gene References into Functions
  1. PROK1 or MMP-2 in the amniotic fluid do not have a role in the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID: 29405963
  2. Elevated PROK1 in the first pregnancy trimester is a more effective marker than PAPP-A in the prediction of pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. PMID: 28675948
  3. The VEGF/sVEGF-R1 ratio in follicular fluid on the day of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing IVF procedure, regardless of the type of stimulation protocol, might predict the risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper in the literature to show interplay among VEGF, EG-VEGF and sVEGF-R1 and the correlation between their concentration and OHSS risk. PMID: 28820403
  4. These findings demonstrate a novel function of primary cilia in controlling EG-VEGF-regulated trophoblast invasion and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. PMID: 27736039
  5. miR-346 and miR-582-3p regulate EG-VEGF-induced trophoblast invasion through repressing MMP 2 and MMP 9, and may become novel diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets for EG-VEGF-related obstetric disorders. (c) 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):210-219, 2017. PMID: 27619846
  6. Each follicular fluid (FF) was individually aspirated and FF/serum EG-VEGF, inhibin-a, and FF IGF-1 levels were evaluated. The pregnant group was characterized by increased numbers of WVFs (p = 0.044), a WVE (p = 0.022), and increased levels of FF IGF-1 (p = 0.001) and serum EG-VEGF (p = 0.03). PMID: 27484063
  7. Results show the biological effects of PROK1-V67I on cell functions are similar to those of wild type, and the common variant of V67I may act as a modifier in the PROK1-PROKR system through down-regulation of PROK1 expression. PMID: 26828479
  8. EG-VEGF and its receptor PKR1 might play a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors and could serve as prognostic markers for this rare malignant disease. PMID: 26475302
  9. The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both PROK1 and VEGF relative to the cases that expressed only 1 protein, and the expression of both proteins was found to be an independent prognostic factor. PMID: 26318037
  10. PROK1 levels in follicular fluid and fertilization culture media could constitute new predictive noninvasive markers of successful embryo implantation in conventional in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer PMID: 26401590
  11. Simultaneous targeting of both angiogenic growth factors (VEGF/PROK1) may prove more useful in colorectal cancer PMID: 25788276
  12. High Prokineticin 1 protein expression is associated with sporadic colorectal cancer. PMID: 25331005
  13. Expression of PROK1 and PROKR1 was significantly higher in mid-gestation ovaries (17-20 wk) than at earlier gestations (8-11 and 14-16 wk). PMID: 26192875
  14. More importantly this paper argues for EG-VEGF clinical relevance as a potential biomarker of the onset of pregnancy pathologies and discusses its potential usefulness for future therapeutic directions. PMID: 24955357
  15. EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3. PMID: 24671265
  16. Study corroborates the clinical relevance of the EG-VEGF system in human early pregnancy, and provides evidence for the gene-gene interactions of EG-VEGF and PROKR variants. PMID: 25064403
  17. An increased mRNA expression of PROK1 and LIF could be one of the several abnormalities characterizing the endometrium in women recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID: 25128195
  18. Defective placental maturation is associated with an imbalance of expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and PK1. PMID: 23891065
  19. preliminary data suggest a high potential of prokineticin 1 in the success of implantation and pregnancy PMID: 23972922
  20. number of blood vessels in PROK1-positive primary gastrointestinal lesions was higher than that in PROK1-negative primary lesions. CONCLUSION: PROK1 expression might be related to the extent of malignancy in gastrointestinal cancer PMID: 24324064
  21. EG-VEGF as a new placental growth factor acting during the first trimester of pregnancy, established its mechanism of action, and provide evidence for its deregulation in FGR. PMID: 22941044
  22. During the first trimester of pregnancy, hCG and EG-VEGF exhibit the same pattern of expression, suggesting that EG-VEGF is potentially regulated by hCG. PMID: 22138749
  23. Findings, together with the detection of sequence variants in PROKR1, PROK1 and PROKR2 genes associated to HSCR and, in some cases in combination with RET or GDNF mutations, provide evidence to consider them as susceptibility genes for HSCR. PMID: 21858136
  24. Data show that decidualization was associated with increased expression of 428 genes including SCARA5 (181-fold), DKK1 (71-fold) and PROK1 (32-fold), and decreased expression of 230 genes including MMP-7 (35-fold) and SFRP4 (21-fold). PMID: 21858178
  25. identified a novel signalling pathway whereby PROK1 can induce the expression of DKK1 in the human endometrium and first trimester decidua. PMID: 21546446
  26. The data shows that much more PK1 in healthy pregnant women is produced than those suffering from preeclampsia. PMID: 21876489
  27. Prok1 is significantly increased in ppapillary thyroid cancer, and its expression in PTC is related to BRAF mutation. PMID: 21385081
  28. CTGF expression in early pregnancy decidua is regulated by PROK1, via activation of the Gq, PLC, cSrc, EGFR, MAPK/ERK kinase pathway and has a role in cell adhesion. PMID: 21098624
  29. Data show that expression of PK1 and PKR1 was detected in primary MM cells and myeloma cell lines. PMID: 20795791
  30. When endometrial stromal cells from both groups of women were differentiated to decidual phenotype, PROK1 mRNA was up-regulated and PR and HOXA10 mRNA were down-regulated to the same extent. PMID: 20400074
  31. findings identify EG-VEGF as a novel paracrine regulator of trophoblast invasion. We speculate that a failure to correctly down-regulate placental expression of EG-VEGF at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy might lead to PE PMID: 19602057
  32. Altered expression of PROK1 could be one of the several biochemical abnormalities characterizing eutopic endometrium in endometriosis. PMID: 19285664
  33. Treatment of human decidua with a lentiviral miRNA to abolish endogenous PROK1 expression results in a significant reduction in IL-11 expression and secretion PMID: 19801577
  34. EG-VEGF expression was significantly higher in ectopic endometriotic tissue when compared to eutopic samples in infertile women. PMID: 19135668
  35. The role of EG-VEGF in the regulation of angiogenesis in endocrine glands. Review. PMID: 12858543
  36. acting via either PK-R2 or PK-R1, prokineticin 1 may have angiogenic as well as nonangiogenic functions in the ovary PMID: 12915658
  37. Expression of VEGFR-1 mRNA, but not EG-VEGF and the other three VEGF receptors studied, was elevated in preeclamptic vs. normal placentas. PMID: 15126581
  38. Human EG-VEGF may play a role in angiogenesis both during the early endocrine development of testis and in the adult testis as well as in Leydig cell tumor growth. PMID: 15292351
  39. EG-VEGF may only play a role in vascular function of peri-implantation endometrium, but is unlikely to be associated with the etiology of endometrial cancer development. PMID: 16210375
  40. PK1 could be one of the causative factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD); transgenic mice expressing human PK1 exhibit choroidal neovascularization in a model that may be useful for establishing treatments for the exudative form of AMD. PMID: 16263331
  41. Inverse resgulation of mRNA expression by ovarian cells may suggest that in addition to its angiogenic effects, EG-VEGF/PK-1 may also play other roles in ovary. (review) PMID: 16320832
  42. High EG-VEGF is associated with carcinogenesis and portal vein tumor thrombus formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma PMID: 17167981
  43. Overexpressed Prk1 conferred Adriamycin resistance in a human embryo kidney cell line. PMID: 17178891
  44. EG-VEGF/Prok-1 signaling has a role in neuroblastoma progression PMID: 17289879
  45. Either EG-VEGF is not exclusive of endocrine organs, or the pancreas should be considered as a functional steroidogenic tissue. PMID: 17683928
  46. PROK1 and PROKR1 expression is elevated in human decidua during early pregnancy PROK1-PROKR1 interaction regulates expression of a host of implantation-related genes. PMID: 18339712
  47. EG-VEGF may enhance cell proliferation through the activation of MAPK pathway, although not through the Akt pathway. PMID: 18571163
  48. High PK1 mRNA levels were observed only in cultured pancreatic stellate cells and microdissected islet cells, but not in cancer cells, and PK1 protein was localized mainly in islets and cancer-associated stromal cells. PMID: 19077468
  49. hCG-mediated LIF expression in the endometrium is dependent on prior induction of PROK1. PMID: 19255255
  50. EG-VEGF protects pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis through upregulation of myeloid cell leukemia-1, an anti-apoptotic protein of the bcl-2 family. PMID: 19523441

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Subcellular Location
Protein Families
AVIT (prokineticin) family
Tissue Specificity
Localizes to glandular epithelium, stroma and vascular epithelial cells of first trimester decidua (at protein level). Up-regulated in first trimester decidua when compared with non-pregnant endometrium. Expressed in the steroidogenic glands, ovary, testi
Database Links

HGNC: 18454

OMIM: 606233

KEGG: hsa:84432

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000271331

UniGene: Hs.514793

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