Recombinant Human Beta-defensin 1 protein(DEFB1) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP003031HU
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Product Details

Purity >98% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using CD34+ dendritic cells is in a concentration range of 100.0-1000.0 ng/ml.
Target Names DEFB1
Uniprot No. P60022
Research Area Microbiology?
Alternative Names BD 1; BD-1; BD1; beta 1; Beta defensin 1; Beta-defensin 1; DEFB 1; DEFB1; DEFB1_HUMAN; DEFB101; Defensin; Defensin beta 1; Defensin beta 1 preproprotein; HBD 1; hBD-1; HBD1; MGC51822
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.Coli
Expression Region 22-68aa
Mol. Weight 5.1 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered 20 mM PB, pH 7.4, 130 mM NaCl
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Has bactericidal activity. May act as a ligand for C-C chemokine receptor CCR6. Positively regulates the sperm motility and bactericidal activity in a CCR6-dependent manner. Binds to CCR6 and triggers Ca2+ mobilization in the sperm which is important for its motility
Gene References into Functions
  1. The allelic distribution of the polymorphism rs12355840 in miRNA202 was associated with caries experience in the Brazilian Manaus group. In the Ribeirao Preto group, the allelic and genotypic distributions in the polymorphism rs11362 in DEFB1 were associated with caries experience. PMID: 29727722
  2. These studies identified SNPs that were cis-eQTLs for DEFB1 and AHR and, which were associated with variation in plasma KYN concentrations that were related to severity of major depressive disordersymptoms. PMID: 29317604
  3. a considerable connection of DEFB1 and TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms with nephrolithiasis PMID: 29959006
  4. identification of critical promoter regions of DEFB1 that are epigenetically influenced by lactobacilli in vaginal keratinocytes PMID: 28508168
  5. Endometrial tissues and epithelial cells constitutively secreted both BD-1 and -2 mostly at the apical compartment. Both genistein and daidzein induced BDs secretion which reached a peak at 5-15 min. The apical secretion of BDs was coincidence with increased Cl- secretion induced by genistein. PMID: 29905453
  6. The polymorphisms in DEFB1 were not associated with hBD salivary level and caries experience (p > 0.05) in children. PMID: 28343232
  7. These findings suggest a role for hBD-1 in psoriasis pathogenesis PMID: 28067065
  8. Significant associations were found between periodontitis and g. -20G> A (rs11362) and g. -44C> G (rs1800972) SNPs in DEFB1 gene as well as p.Ala29Thr (rs1126477) and p.Lys47Arg (rs1126478) SNPs in LTF gene. PMID: 28485077
  9. hBD-1 potentiates the induction of in vitro osteoclastogenesis by RANKL via enhanced phosphorylation of the p44/42 MAPKs. PMID: 28709835
  10. findings lead us to hypothesize an involvement of hBD-1 mediated innate immunity in the modulation of the susceptibility towards adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy development. PMID: 29501294
  11. Two DEFB1 SNPs were significantly associated with the DMFT(decayed, missing, filled teeth) index. PMID: 27846636
  12. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hBD-1 basal cell loss (>/=20% of prostatic glands in total cores) is an independent factor for predicting prostatic adenocarcinoma (odds ratio: 4.739, confidence interval: 1.093-20.554, p = 0.038). hBD-1 loss of basal cells is a useful indicator to identify extremely high-risk patients with initially negative biopsy. PMID: 28885732
  13. It was concluded that bile acids can differentially regulate colonic epithelial beta-defensin expression and secretion; the authors discuss the implications for intestinal health and disease.- PMID: 28487283
  14. data provide important insight into the in vivo kinetics of HBD expression, the mechanism of HBD1 induction by HIV-1, and the role of HBDs in the early innate response to HIV-1 during acute infection PMID: 28253319
  15. CpG methylation frequencies in the DEFB1 low CpG-content promoter were significantly higher in the prostate malignant tissues than in adjacent benign tissues. PMID: 27835705
  16. DEFB1 - genotypes were correlated with the hBD-1 salivary concentration. PMID: 27770642
  17. Coding missense and nonsense single nucleotide polymorphisms result in less active HBD1 antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. PMID: 27160989
  18. A significant difference was found between the levels of staining of TLR-2, TLR-4 and hBD-1 in different lesions from the epidermis, inflammation region, dermis and skin appendages (p < 0.05) in patients with acne vulgaris. PMID: 26695933
  19. Expression of hBD-1, hBD-2, hBD-3, and hBD-4 in healthy and chronic periodontitis gingiva. PMID: 26874342
  20. The -44 CC genotype of the beta-defensin-1 gene (DEFB1 rs1800972) may be associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in Japanese. PMID: 24276427
  21. No clear association was found between the DEFB1 polymorphisms and tuberculosis. PMID: 26991287
  22. DEFB1 polymorphisms alone may not influence pathology susceptibility, however they could possibly concur, together with other factors involved in the genetic control of innate immune system, in the predisposition towards recurrent tonsillitis PMID: 26968045
  23. beta-defensin-1 production is dysregulated in the epithelium of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease PMID: 26568662
  24. dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of variations in DMFT scores. PMID: 26377569
  25. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that DEFB1 genetic polymorphisms rs11362G>A, rs1800972C>G and rs1799946G>A are important contributing factors to the development of digestive diseases PMID: 26232989
  26. Association of infectious pathology of upper respiratory tract and development of periodontitis diseases with markers in DEFB1 (-44G/C) and TLR2 Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp genes was determined. PMID: 27029120
  27. Genotypes and alleles of the DEFB1 gene found in long-living individuals can be considered as the factors that increase the probability of longevity and favorable course of age-related diseases. PMID: 26028230
  28. there is a significant link between innate immunity deregulation through disruption of cationic peptides (hBDs) and the potential development of colon cancer. PMID: 26038828
  29. Possible association between DEFB1 polymorphisms and in vivo salivary levels of hBD-1 in an Italian population of 40 healthy individuals, finding a genotype-related different expression with two of these polymorphisms: -52G > A and -44C > G. PMID: 25939140
  30. We found that RNA interference-induced Caspase-12 silencing increased NOD1, hBD1 and hBD2 expression PMID: 25503380
  31. A-dependent DEFB1 upregulation below 20 mM predicts in vitro antimicrobial activity as well as glucose- and AA-dependent CAMP and IFNG upregulation. PMID: 25815330
  32. We conclude that plant-made recombinant beta-defensins (phBD-1 and phBD-2) are promising antimicrobial substances and have the potential to become additional tools against salmonellosis, particularly when used in combination. PMID: 25417183
  33. The DEFB1 c.-44C>G polymorphism of the GG protective genotype was much less frequent among multiple sclerosis patients than among the controls. PMID: 26434201
  34. beta defensin 1 gene -20G/A, -44C/G and -52G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms were not associated with chronic tonsillitis. PMID: 25683590
  35. Our results suggest the involvement of DEFB1 polymorphisms, in particular that of the c.5*G>A SNP, in the susceptibility of women from Northeast Brazil to HPV infection. PMID: 25410996
  36. Functional polymorphisms in IL1B and DEFB1 influence susceptibility to mold infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. PMID: 25398456
  37. DEFB1 minor haplotypes were also associated with an increased risk of developing Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance lesions, being significantly more frequent in HPV negative women with lesions, than without lesions. PMID: 24435641
  38. The present finding explains a common defect in male infertility associated with both asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia, indicating a dual role of DEFB1 in defending male fertility. PMID: 25122636
  39. GG genotype of C-44G SNP in DEFB1 gene may result in decreased defensin beta-1 production in diabetes. PMID: 25083086
  40. These findings associate DEFB1 5'UTR polymorphisms with HIV-1/AIDS in Mexican women for the first time. PMID: 25001249
  41. hBD-1 suppresses tumor migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 24658581
  42. Data indicate that CCL2 and IL-10 released from burn patient lineage-CD34+CD31- cells were shown to be responsible for their inhibitory activities on the production of beta-defensin 1 (HBD-1) by epidermal keratinocytes. PMID: 24498256
  43. A possible involvement of DEFB1 gene in inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID: 24034632
  44. genetic variant rs11362 in DEFB 1 influences caries susceptibility in CL/P children. The results support the hypothesis that expression of DEFB 1 in saliva may serve as a biomarker for future caries risk PMID: 23964634
  45. This gene encodes a peptide with antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and H. influenzae. PMID: 20100591
  46. HBD-1 serum levels in chronic kidney disease patients are inversely related to estimated glomerular filtration rate. PMID: 24356550
  47. Our findings suggest interplay between hBD-1 and neuroimmunological responses in Alzheimer's disease PMID: 24139179
  48. IRF5, but not TLR4, DEFEB1, or VDR, is associated with the risk of ulcerative colitis in a Han Chinese population. PMID: 23971939
  49. Data suggest that levels of DEFB1 and DEFB2 are highest in colostrum and decrease in human milk over course of lactation; abundance of DEFB1 in colostrum may have protective against upper respiratory infection in infants up to 6 months. PMID: 24124699
  50. The salivary beta-defensin concentration was significantly higher in patients with oral mucosal diseases than in healthy volunteers; furthermore, in patients, the concentration was significantly higher before treatment than after treatment. PMID: 24564045
  51. these observations suggest that there may be an interracial difference in DEFB4/103A copy numbers between admixed populations and a relationship between DEFB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and DEFB4/103A copy number variation PMID: 23194186
  52. A polymorphism in beta-defensin-1 and its protein level were associated with chronic periodontitis in a Chinese population. PMID: 23592000
  53. hBD-1 increases epithelial impermeability of cultured NHEK monolayers by promoting the development of tight junctions PMID: 23712061
  54. There was no change in expression of hBD-1 in patients receiving endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. PMID: 20650771
  55. The role of Immunosuppressive neutrophils on the production of human beta-defensins (HBDs), important molecules on host antimicrobial innate immunities, by human keratinocytes was studied. PMID: 22391815
  56. The results of the present study showed that HDAC1 controls the expression of DEFB1 in lung epithelial cells by regulating transcriptional accessibility at the DEFB1 promoter. PMID: 23185513
  57. The association between periodontitis and one polymorphic site on both DEFB1 and CD14 gene, was investigated. PMID: 23046822
  58. HBD1 is expressed in tonsils and its levels are reduced in patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID: 22444247
  59. Binding of peptides corresponding to the carboxy-terminal region of human-beta-defensins-1-3 with model membranes investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. PMID: 22386945
  60. DEFB1 promoter polymorphisms may promote persistent S. aureus colonization by reducing hbd-1 and hbd-3 expression in keratinocytes of human skin. PMID: 23204181
  61. DEFB1 polymorphisms promote persistent S. aureus colonization by altering beta-defensin expression in keratinocytes of human skin. PMID: 23204181
  62. Several diseases have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the hBD-1 encoding gene. Herein we discuss why the biological role of hBD-1 has been overlooked and how hBD-1 can be activated by chemical reduction. PMID: 23150110
  63. No statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution of the genotypic or allelic frequencies of the DEFB1 c.-52G>A and c.-44C>G SNPs among Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis and healthy control subjects PMID: 22522766
  64. There were no significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the DEFB1 gene between the patients with stroke and healthy blood donors PMID: 22050386
  65. Functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the DEFB1 gene are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Southern Brazilians. PMID: 22323338
  66. Using a large, unique cohort of pediatric CA-SAB, this study found no significant association between DEFB1 genetic variation or DEFB4/DEFB103 gene copy number and susceptibility for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia PMID: 22384213
  67. The stimulation of human fetal membranes with S. agalactiae induced a differential and tissue-specific profile of HBD-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3 secretion. PMID: 21631237
  68. in children with HIV, TLR9 1635AG genotype and TLR9 [G;G] haplotype were associated with rapid disease progression, whereas the DEFbeta1 -44CG genotype and DEFbeta1 [G;G] haplotype correlated with a better clinical outcome. PMID: 22269973
  69. data demonstrate that hBD-1 is a previously-unrecognized component of platelets that displays classic antimicrobial activity and, in addition, signals PMNs to extrude DNA lattices that capture and kill bacteria PMID: 22102811
  70. Data suggest that HIV-1 induces a differential expression of human beta defensins, and describe variants of DEFB1, in placenta and suggest these proteins could be involved in protecting against HIV-1 at least early in pregnancy. PMID: 22159483
  71. Human beta-defensin 1 exhibits further functions than antimicrobial peptide activity in cultured bone cells, including stimulation of proliferation and differentiation. PMID: 21520074
  72. Oxidation and reduction modulate the activity of human beta-defensin 1. PMID: 21983064
  73. genetic polymorphism is associated with atopic dermatitis susceptibility and severity PMID: 22059360
  74. Expression of human DEFB1 is upregulated and related to the decrease in pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID: 21818276
  75. Under the condition of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws an increased expression of hBD-1,-2,-3 is detectable. PMID: 21843332
  76. hBD-1 may play a role in preventing viral replication in immune cells PMID: 21551252
  77. Results reinforce DEFB1 as a candidate modifier gene of the CF pulmonary phenotype. PMID: 21077791
  78. hBD-1 might function as a tumor suppressor gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma, while hBD-2 and -3 might be protooncogenes. PMID: 21280982
  79. There was no significant difference in hBD-1 expression between patients and controls. PMID: 19141978
  80. In comparison with basal conditions, the secretion profile of HBD1 remained without significant changes when exposes to E. coli PMID: 21122132
  81. beta-defensin copy number was assessed in more than 1500 United kingdom DNA samples including more than 1000 cases of Crohn's disease. PMID: 20858604
  82. reduced hBD-1 shields the healthy epithelium against colonisation by commensal bacteria and opportunistic fungi PMID: 21248850
  83. The variations in the genes encoding human beta-defensin-1 and -2 may be associated with the risk of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID: 20720450
  84. The tear film per se contains so much antimicrobial substances that epithelial induction of beta-defensin 1 occurs only as a result of ocular surface damage. PMID: 20526610
  85. DEFB1 allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of CF patients globally considered were similar to those of healthy controls. PMID: 20193032
  86. analysis of DEFB1 haplotypes did not highlight any association of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms with atopic dermatitis development or disease severity PMID: 20618470
  87. Hematological failure was present more often in UK patients with the DEFB1 -44 G/G genotype compared with the C allele carriers (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.85). PMID: 20016407
  88. The beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides hBD1, hBD2 and hBD3 were expressed by immature dendritic cells as well as gingival epithelial cells. PMID: 20618959
  89. The hBD1 mRNA was significantly lower in patients with active CD compared with patients on diet modification. PMID: 20128731
  90. 5'-UTR gene polymorphism affects mRNA secondary structure and its translation efficiency PMID: 20060856
  91. We found a high-caries-experience haplotype (GCA), which increased DMFT scores two-fold, and a low- caries-experience haplotype (ACG), which decreased DMFT scores two-fold, in the DEFB1 promoter. PMID: 20371866
  92. leukemic patients carrying untranslated variants of hBD-1 display a higher susceptibility to herpes viruses infections PMID: 19954367
  93. A 3' UTR transition within DEFB1 is associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis. PMID: 19829306
  94. Authors identified and genotyped five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HBD1 in melanoma. PMID: 19741426
  95. HBD-3 is a dimer, while HBD-1 and HBD-2 are monomeric. Subsequently, the NMR solution structures of HBD1 and HBD3 were determined using standard homonuclear techniques and compared with the previously determined solution structure of HBD2 PMID: 11741980
  96. a Ile38 variant was observed in 15.0% of patients but only in 2.8% of healthy individuals and significantly associated with the disease (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 2.0-8.3, P = 0.0012); Variations in hBD-1 may define a high-risk subgroup of COPD PMID: 11829455
  97. Proximal and distal RTC showed constitutive expression of human beta-defensin 1 and human beta-defensin. PMID: 12381917
  98. DEFB1 is down-regulated in human prostatic and renal carcinomas. PMID: 12695553
  99. Expression of mRNA is upregulated during differentation of keratinocyte immortalized cell lines. PMID: 12727027
  100. the level of expression of hBD-1 mRNA is lower and that of hBD-3 was higher than that of hBD-2 in reconstructed epidermis PMID: 14703118

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Subcellular Location Secreted, Membrane
Protein Families Beta-defensin family
Tissue Specificity Blood plasma. Sperm. Highly expressed in the lower head and midpiece of sperm. Significantly reduced levels found in the sperms of asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia patients (at protein level).
Database Links

HGNC: 2766

OMIM: 602056

KEGG: hsa:1672

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000297439

UniGene: Hs.32949

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