Recombinant Human Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), partial

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Code CSB-EP001964HU
Size $224
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
AQP 4; AQP-4; AQP4; AQP4_HUMAN; Aquaporin type 4; Aquaporin-4; Aquaporin4; HMIWC 2; HMIWC2; Mercurial insensitive water channel; Mercurial-insensitive water channel; MGC22454; MIWC; WCH 4; WCH4
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight
Protein Length
Cytoplasmic Domain
Tag Info
N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO-tagged
Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
3-7 business days
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

The recombinant human AQP4 protein is a fusion protein consists of the human AQP4 protein (253-323aa) partnered with the N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO tag. It was produced in the E.coli. This recombinant AQP4 protein's purity is greater than 90% determined by SDS-PAGE. After electrophoresis, there is a 22 kDa protein band presented on the gel.

Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is one of the three types of aquaporins (AQPs) that have been described in astrocytes. AQP4 protein is the predominant aquaporin found in brain and has an important role in brain water homeostasis. Its expression is mainly confined to astrocytes, but its distribution and levels of expression vary between different brain regions. In the cerebral cortex, AQP4 expression is particularly abundant in astrocytes aligning blood vessels. Recent researches found the correlations of AQP4 expression and polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy. Upregulation of aqp4 improves blood–brain barrier integrity and perihematomal edema following intracerebral hemorrhage. One findings suggested that anti-AQP4 autoantibodies promote ATP release from astrocytes and induce mechanical pain in rats. Nevertheless, the predominant pattern of AQP4 in the central nervous system is highly polarized, especially in astrocytes in the proximity of or in contact with blood vessels, the ependymal layer, and pia.

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Target Background

Forms a water-specific channel. Plays an important role in brain water homeostasis and in glymphatic solute transport. Required for a normal rate of water exchange across the blood brain interface. Required for normal levels of cerebrospinal fluid influx into the brain cortex and parenchyma along paravascular spaces that surround penetrating arteries, and for normal drainage of interstitial fluid along paravenous drainage pathways. Thereby, it is required for normal clearance of solutes from the brain interstitial fluid, including soluble beta-amyloid peptides derived from APP. Plays a redundant role in urinary water homeostasis and urinary concentrating ability.
Gene References into Functions
  1. AQP4 genetic variation moderates the relationship between sleep and brain Abeta-amyloid burden. PMID: 29479071
  2. our results suggested that miRNA-320a could suppress the aggressive capacity of tumors by targeting AQP4, and that miRNA-320a could serve as a new effective therapeutic target for glioma surgical and therapeutic strategies. PMID: 29484417
  3. This study demonstrated that Concentrations of microparticles expressing GFAP and AQP4 were significantly higher in the traumatic brain injury group compared with healthy controls. PMID: 28972406
  4. Review speculated that the diverse expression of AQP4 isoforms and complement regulatory factors may determine individual susceptibility to disease onset, the expression difference in AQP4 isoforms and complement regulatory factors in different organs may determine the extent of involvement and the severity of the disease. AQP4-IgG-mediated immune injury in peripheral organs may not be rare. PMID: 29141819
  5. Hypothermia-mediated increase in AQP4 surface abundance on human astrocytes, which was blocked using either calmodulin antagonist; TRPV4 antagonist or calcium chelation. A TRPV4 agonist mimicked the effect of hypothermia compared with untreated normothermic astrocytes. Hypothermia increased surface localization of AQP4 in human astrocytes likely through TRPV4 calcium channels and calmodulin activation. PMID: 28925524
  6. AQP4 expression was significantly increased 24 hours after mTBI. mTBI resulted in a significant increase in the cell swelling within 30 min of mTBI, which was significantly reduced in the presence of AZA. PMID: 27623738
  7. the overall results of this study allowed us to provide the first description of the localization of AQP4 in human SGs and indicate an abnormal distribution of AQP4 in SGs from SS patients, which could be responsible for the decreased saliva secretion in these patients. PMID: 28648105
  8. CC genotype of rs72878794 associated with sudden infant death syndrome PMID: 28520217
  9. Aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) are recognized as essential for two unique functions, namely, neurovascular coupling and glymphatic flow, the brain equivalent of systemic lymphatics [Review]. PMID: 28820467
  10. In neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder-AQP4 patients, gender impacts on disease onset age and site of attack PMID: 27760862
  11. Report the value of spinal cord biopsy in the diagnosis of aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. PMID: 24192218
  12. identified that TMZ might have therapeutic potential for controlling proliferation, invasion of malignant glioma by inhibiting AQP4 expression through activation of p38 signal transduction pathway PMID: 28569417
  13. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene mutations are related to the pathogenesis of inflammatory demyelinating diseases in the central nervous system. PMID: 25895050
  14. Comparative molecular dynamics study of neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G binding to AQP4 extracellular domains has been presented. PMID: 28477975
  15. Osmotic water permeabilities of aquaporins AQP4, AQP5, and GlpF from near-equilibrium simulations have been presented. PMID: 28455098
  16. A clear correlation between AQP4 expression and ADCmax values in grade I meningioma was identified. PMID: 27357591
  17. Peritumoral brain edema in patients with meningiomas may depend on AQP4 expression grades and not on tumor grade, tumor volume, Ki-67 expression, and cell count. PMID: 27552812
  18. AQP4 antibodies were higher in neuromyelitis optica Chinese Han patients with circulating auto-antibodies. PMID: 27988051
  19. Retinal nerve fiber layer may be better preserved in MOG-IgG versus AQP4-IgG optic neuritis. PMID: 28125740
  20. AQP4-autoantibody serostatus correlated with poor visual outcome in neuromyelitis optica (Meta-analysis) PMID: 28071581
  21. Data show that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) autoantibodies double positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients had a multiphase disease course with a high annual relapse rate. PMID: 26920678
  22. In this study, altered AQP4 expression was associated with aging brains. PMID: 27893874
  23. Results suggest that pain is an important factor in the quality of life experienced by both AQP4-Ab positive and negative transverse myelitis patients and suggest an even greater association than disability PMID: 27538606
  24. The major findings in this study were (1) a higher AQP4 immunogold labeling density over parenchymal astrocytic membranes in human subjects than in mice, and (2) a lower degree of AQP4 immunogold polarization to perivascular astrocytic endfoot membranes in humans compared with mice. In the human individuals, endfoot AQP4 polarization did not differ between capillary and arteriolar vessel segments. PMID: 28317216
  25. Upregulation of Aquaporin 4 is associated with Astrocytomas. PMID: 27483250
  26. No characteristic MRI brain features were observed in the Malaysian AQP4 seropositive idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease patients versus those who are seronegative PMID: 28283103
  27. the T allele of rs2075575 is a risk for AQP4-Ab-positive NMO. PMID: 27012886
  28. A reduction was found in the aquaporin-4 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with intracranial hypertension. PMID: 26853804
  29. Study concludes from direct measurement of deterministic molecular dynamics in conjunction with applied-field metadynamics that the intrinsic electric field within the AQP4 channel points along the +z-axis, such that externally applied static fields in this direction serve to "open" the channel in the selectivity-filter and the asparagine-proline-alanine region. PMID: 27586951
  30. Results indicate that T-cells bearing characteristics of both Th1 and Th17 T-cells and targeting specific immunodominant epitopes of the AQP4 protein might be involved in the pathogenesis of Neuromyelitis optica PMID: 27063619
  31. AQP4 antibody associated optic neuritis tends to involve the posterior optic pathway. PMID: 26163068
  32. Our results suggest that AQP5 but not AQP4 contributes to salivary secretion in patients with Sjogren's syndrome, including those with neuromyelitis optica complicated with Sjogren's syndrome. PMID: 26375433
  33. Administration of E1 + P1 and E1 + P2 decreased the inhibitory effect of E1 on the IL-6 levels and AQP4 protein expression PMID: 26638215
  34. Study shows that the processing of AQP4 by antigen presenting cells in Lewis rats produces a highly encephalitogenic AQP4 epitope (AQP4268-285) PMID: 26530185
  35. The induction of antibodies to an AQP4 epitope in mice immunized with the TAX1BP1-derived peptide suggests that a latent HTLV-1 infection could lead to TAX1BP1 antigen presentation and the production of anti-AQP4 antibodies in human neuromyelitis optica. PMID: 26287441
  36. This study demonstrated that Subcellular localization of Aqp4 was compared between cortical and white matter astrocytes in postmortem specimens of patients with focal ischemic stroke versus controls. PMID: 26419740
  37. Anti-AQP-4 antibodies correlate with active neuromyelitis optica disease activity and animal models PMID: 25913278
  38. AQP4 antibody was highly prevalent (almost 54%) in Egyptian idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system patients PMID: 25677878
  39. Study identified two AQP4 genomic variants, rs11661256 and rs1058427, as significant predictors of combined intracerebral hemorrhage and perihematomal edema volume after intracerebral hemorrhage PMID: 26000774
  40. Measurements of the membrane water permeability of MDCK cells expressing human AQP4 mutants provide the first evidencethat the rate of water flow can also be controlled by small movements of single-amino acid side chains lining the water pore. PMID: 26512424
  41. Phosphorylation at serine 276 is necessary for AQP4 translocation in response to changes of tonicity. PMID: 26013827
  42. Case Report: relapsing inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, in an anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive 14-year-old girl. PMID: 24866202
  43. Case Report: anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with hypothalamic lesions and sudden onset of sleep. PMID: 25160125
  44. Data suggest that preventing neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG aquaporin-4 (AQP4) binding would represent a strategy for a NMO therapy. PMID: 25839357
  45. The idea is that sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharges activates NOX2 with O(2)(-) production, leading to lipid peroxidation. The resulting generation of HNE targets AQP4, affecting water and ion balance. PMID: 25460197
  46. This review focuses on the role of AQP4 in ischemic brain edema, and its prospect as a therapeutic target--{REVIEW} PMID: 25306413
  47. analysis of how aquaporin 4 extracellular domains mutations affect restricted binding patterns of pathogenic neuromyelitis optica IgG PMID: 25792738
  48. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for possible involvement of genetic variations in AQP4 gene in the functional outcome, but not in initial severity or presence of intracranial hemorrhages of patients with TBI. PMID: 24999750
  49. results suggest that AQP4 is internalized and the lysosome is involved in degrading the internalized AQP4 post-intracerebral hemorrhage PMID: 25257965
  50. AQP4 is mainly targeted to the lipid rafts fraction of the plasma membrane and a change of subcellular localization of AQP4 by the treatment with cholesterol-lowering agents significantly reduces the cytotoxic effects of NMO-IgG PMID: 25128605

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Subcellular Location
Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Basolateral cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Endosome membrane. Cell membrane, sarcolemma; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell projection.
Protein Families
MIP/aquaporin (TC 1.A.8) family
Tissue Specificity
Detected in skeletal muscle. Detected in stomach, along the glandular base region of the fundic gland (at protein level). Detected in brain, lung and skeletal muscle, and at much lower levels in heart and ovary.
Database Links

HGNC: 637

OMIM: 600308

KEGG: hsa:361

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000372654

UniGene: Hs.315369

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