Recombinant Human Geminin (GMNN)

Code CSB-YP009577HU
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Source Yeast
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Code CSB-EP009577HU
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Source E.coli
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Code CSB-EP009577HU-B
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Source E.coli
Conjugate Avi-tag Biotinylated
E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) is highly specific in covalently attaching biotin to the 15 amino acid AviTag peptide. This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag.
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Code CSB-BP009577HU
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Source Baculovirus
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Code CSB-MP009577HU
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Source Mammalian cell
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Product Details

>85% (SDS-PAGE)
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Alternative Names
DNA replication inhibitor; Gem; GEMI_HUMAN; Geminin; Geminin DNA replication inhibitor; GMNN; OTTHUMP00000039393; RP3 369A17.3
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Protein Length
Full length protein
Tag Info
The following tags are available.
N-terminal His-tagged
The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer before Lyophilization
Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Please contact us to get it.

Customer Reviews and Q&A

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Target Background

Inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex (pre-RC). It is degraded during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Its destruction at the metaphase-anaphase transition permits replication in the succeeding cell cycle. Inhibits histone acetyltransferase activity of KAT7/HBO1 in a CDT1-dependent manner, inhibiting histone H4 acetylation and DNA replication licensing. Inhibits the transcriptional activity of a subset of Hox proteins, enrolling them in cell proliferative control.
Gene References into Functions
  1. High Geminin expression is associated with triple negative breast cancers. PMID: 26989079
  2. these data identify DUB3 and USP7 as factors that regulate DNA replication by controlling Geminin protein stability, and suggest that USP7 may be involved in Geminin dysregulation during breast cancer progression. PMID: 28288134
  3. geminin selectively couples the transcription factor forkhead box O3 (FoxO3) to HDAC3, thereby specifically facilitating FoxO3 deacetylation. PMID: 28436938
  4. summarize current information on the molecular functions of Geminin and the regulatory system for Geminin protein expression, and argue for the molecular role of Geminin in cell fate determination of hematopoietic stem cells [review] PMID: 27422432
  5. Studies indicate that geminin expression is associated with different types of cancer. PMID: 27702582
  6. High geminin expression is associated with breast cancer. PMID: 25082658
  7. De novo GMNN mutations cause autosomal-dominant primordial dwarfism associated with Meier-Gorlin syndrome. PMID: 26637980
  8. Elevated Ki67 and geminin expression distinguish a fraction of metastatic breast carcinoma with worse prognosis. PMID: 25595275
  9. geminin is indispensable for fetal hematopoiesis and regulates the generation of a physiological pool of stem and progenitor cells in the fetal hematopoietic system. PMID: 25516969
  10. These findings suggest that E2F-mediated activation of Geminin transcription is negatively regulated by Geminin through the inhibition of chromatin remodeling. PMID: 24554762
  11. Bound Geminin prevents transition of the pre-replicative complexes to a state that is competent for initiation of DNA replication. PMID: 25231993
  12. Selective expression of geminin during the proliferative phase of the cell cycle and its nuclear specificity increase its potential to be used as an alternative marker of proliferation in breast cancer patients. PMID: 24292956
  13. Protein levels of Geminin and Cdt1 are tightly regulated through the cell cycle, and the Cdt1-Geminin complex likely acts as a molecular switch that can enable or disable the firing of each origin of replication. PMID: 22918581
  14. The Aurora-A-geminin-Cdt1 axis represents a critical regulator of proper DNA replication. PMID: 23695679
  15. The properties of the Idas-Geminin complex suggest it as the functional form of Idas and provide a possible mechanism to modulate Geminin activity PMID: 24064211
  16. Human geminin, when expressed in human cells in culture under a constitutive promoter, is excluded from the nucleus during part of the G1 phase and at the transition from G0 to G1. PMID: 23814078
  17. MCM 7, geminin and topo IIalpha can be reliable tools for the differential diagnosis of reactive mesothelial cells and malignant mesothelioma cells. PMID: 23860238
  18. Data indicate that retroviral transduction-mediated overexpression or siRNA-mediated knock-down of Hoxa9 respectively down-regulated or up-regulated Geminin in hematopoietic cells. PMID: 23326393
  19. Coincidently amplified CDK13, GMNN, and CENPF genes can play a role as common cancer-driver genes in human cancers. PMID: 22912832
  20. p53 not only regulates cell-cycle progression, but also functions through geminin to prevent DHFR amplification and protect genomic integrity. PMID: 23026135
  21. Data suggest that pulmonary metastasis is corrected with levels of Geminin, cleaved caspase-3, CD44, E-cadherin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD204 in cancer cells within permeated lymphatic vessels. PMID: 22429811
  22. If cell cycle checkpoints are inhibited in cells lacking geminin, cells progress through mitosis and less re-replication occurs. PMID: 22366459
  23. found that geminin and TopoIIalpha interact primarily in G2/M/early G1 cells on chromosomes, that geminin recruits TopoIIalpha to chromosomal decatenation sites or vice versa and that geminin silencing in mammary epithelial cells triggers formation of chromosome bridges by suppressing TopoIIalpha access to chromosomal arms PMID: 21595939
  24. The C-terminal residue Ser184 of Geminin can be phosphorylated by Casein kinase II, resulting in the enhanced binding to Hox and more potent inhibitory effect on Hox transcriptional activity. PMID: 22615398
  25. geminin is a genuine oncogene that promotes cytokinesis failure and production of aneuploid, aggressive breast tumors when overexpressed PMID: 22184288
  26. The over-expression of geminin and cdt1 may play an important role in pathogenesis of acute leukemia. PMID: 21729526
  27. Geminin has been shown to coordinate proliferation and differentiation by regulating cell cycle progression, chromatin organization, and transcription in the nervous system. (Review) PMID: 21740351
  28. Idas as a novel Geminin binding partner, implicated in cell cycle progression, and a putative regulator of proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. PMID: 21543332
  29. Geminin enhances the binding of HDAC11 to Cdt1 and inhibits Cdt1-induced chromatin decondensation. PMID: 20980834
  30. Geminin expression is potentially a useful marker for predicting tumour aggressiveness and clinical outcome in salivary gland carcinomas. PMID: 20497246
  31. Data show that the Cdt1:Geminin complex can exist in two distinct forms, a "permissive" heterotrimer and an "inhibitory" heterohexamer. PMID: 19906994
  32. Results show that geminin, cdt1 and cdc6 are differentially regulated during megakaryocytic differentiation and suggest an active role of cdc6 in endomitosis. PMID: 12429841
  33. elevated levels in human cytomegalovirus infected fibroblasts PMID: 12551974
  34. Expression and phosphorylation of geminin. PMID: 12745091
  35. geminin does not have a role in Cdk-phosphorylation/negative regulation of Cdt1 PMID: 14993212
  36. Inactivation of Geminin, an inhibitor of origin licensing, leads to rereplication in human normal and tumor cells within the same cell cycle. PMID: 15159417
  37. Geminin is both a negative and positive regulator of pre-replicative complex formation in human cells, playing a positive role in allowing DNA replication factor Double parked accumulation in G2-M PMID: 15257290
  38. Data suggest that geminin is required for suppressing overreplication in cells with wild-type or mutant p53 and that a G(2)/M checkpoint restricts the proliferation of cells with overreplicated DNA. PMID: 15282313
  39. in proliferating HeLa cells geminin and Cdt1 are co-expressed during a relatively short time at the G(1)-to-S phase transition; Cdt1 is rapidly degraded early in S phase, but geminin remains bound to the chromatin sites PMID: 15284237
  40. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry localize Cdt1 as well as geminin to the proliferative compartment of the developing mouse gut epithelium PMID: 15291814
  41. Results describe the crystal structure of the coiled-coil domain of human geminin, and give a consistent identification and mapping of geminin interacting regions onto structurally important domains. PMID: 15313623
  42. expression of geminin is frequently deregulated in tumor cells and might play an important role in the regulation of cell growth in both normal and malignant cells. PMID: 15389519
  43. Geminin expression is severely downregulated upon differentiation of Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of intestinal epithelial differentiation. PMID: 16273206
  44. The activity of Gem in regulating cell fate, in addition to its cell-cycle-regulatory activity, requires control of its subcellular localization. PMID: 16464175
  45. The combination of MCM2, geminin and Ki67 could represent a valuable tool in the understanding of hepatocellular carcinoma progression in cirrhosis. PMID: 16629645
  46. Findings suggest that the CDT1 838G/A and GMNN 387C/A polymorphisms may not play a major role in the etiology of breast cancer. PMID: 17029205
  47. Geminin is cleaved in primary cells and cancer cell lines induced to undergo apoptosis by a variety of stimuli. PMID: 17261582
  48. ATR/Chk1 pathway is activated at an early time point after the loss of Geminin and contributes to checkpoint arrest PMID: 17716975
  49. These results suggested that, at least in vitro, oleic acid-containing cell membranes of the lipid bilayer inhibit Cdt1-geminin complex formation by binding to Cdt1 and thereby liberating Cdt1 from inhibition by geminin. PMID: 18288374
  50. geminin is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and downregulated by apigenin which may contribute to the antitumor effect of this natural flavonoid PMID: 18404646

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Involvement in disease
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 6 (MGORS6)
Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Protein Families
Geminin family
Database Links

HGNC: 17493

OMIM: 602842

KEGG: hsa:51053

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000230056

UniGene: Hs.234896

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