Recombinant Mouse Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2(Trem2),partial

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Code CSB-MP024405MO
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Description

Recombinant Mouse Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (Trem2) with an N-terminal 6xHis-tag is a partial-length protein expressed in the mammalian cells. The sequence used to prepare this recombinant Trem2 protein corresponds to the extracellular domain (Leu19-Ser171) of mouse Trem2. Its purity is greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE. A molecular mass band of approximately 23 kDa was visualized on the reducing SDS-PAGE gel. This recombinant Trem2 protein may find uses in the specific antibody production or the studies of Trem2-mediated immunology.

Trem2 is a transmembrane protein expressed in the microglia, alveolar macrophages, osteoclasts, and other mononuclear phagocytes. Once activated by its ligands including anionic lipids (LPS and phospholipids), apolipoprotein J (ApoJ), and ApoE, Trem2 recruits tyrosine kinase SYK through the DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12). Multiple signaling pathways including MAPK and PI3K pathways ensue, modulating the phagocytosis of cellular debris and the inflammatory responses of microglia. LucineKaranfilian etc. demonstrated that Trem2 regulates the composition and deposition of amyloid plaque, microglial morphology and proliferation, neuroinflammation, and tau phosphorylation. As a sensor for anionic lipids exposed during neuronal apoptosis and Aβ deposition, Trem2 may improve spatial abilities and memory, and protect against apoptosis.

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names Trem2
Uniprot No. Q99NH8
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names Trem2; Trem2a; Trem2b; Trem2c; Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2; TREM-2; Triggering receptor expressed on monocytes 2
Species Mus musculus (Mouse)
Source Mammalian cell
Expression Region 19-171aa
Target Protein Sequence LNTTVLQGMAGQSLRVSCTYDALKHWGRRKAWCRQLGEEGPCQRVVSTHGVWLLAFLKKRNGSTVIADDTLAGTVTITLKNLQAGDAGLYQCQSLRGREAEVLQKVLVEVLEDPLDDQDAGDLWVPEESSSFEGAQVEHSTSRNQETSFPPTS
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 20.8kDa
Protein Length Extracellular Domain
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time 3-7 business days
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Function
(From Uniprot)
Forms a receptor signaling complex with TYROBP which mediates signaling and cell activation following ligand binding. Acts as a receptor for amyloid-beta protein 42, a cleavage product of the amyloid-beta precursor protein APP, and mediates its uptake and degradation by microglia. Binding to amyloid-beta 42 mediates microglial activation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL6R and CCL3, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine ARG1. Acts as a receptor for lipoprotein particles such as LDL, VLDL, and HDL and for apolipoproteins such as APOA1, APOA2, APOB, APOE, APOE2, APOE3, APOE4, and CLU and enhances their uptake in microglia. Binds phospholipids (preferably anionic lipids) such as phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingomyelin. Regulates microglial proliferation by acting as an upstream regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade. Required for microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. Also required for microglial activation and phagocytosis of myelin debris after neuronal injury and of neuronal synapses during synapse elimination in the developing brain. Regulates microglial chemotaxis and process outgrowth, and also the microglial response to oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide. It suppresses PI3K and NF-kappa-B signaling in response to lipopolysaccharide; thus promoting phagocytosis, suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine and nitric oxide production, inhibiting apoptosis and increasing expression of IL10 and TGFB. During oxidative stress, it promotes anti-apoptotic NF-kappa-B signaling and ERK signaling. Plays a role in microglial MTOR activation and metabolism. Regulates age-related changes in microglial numbers. Triggers activation of the immune responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Mediates cytokine-induced formation of multinucleated giant cells which are formed by the fusion of macrophages. In dendritic cells, it mediates up-regulation of chemokine receptor CCR7 and dendritic cell maturation and survival. Involved in the positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation.
Gene References into Functions
  1. The present study provide novel evidence that overexpression of TREM2 protects against MPTP-induced PD progression via modulation of microglial function through inhibiting TRAF6/TLR4-mediated activation of the MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. PMID: 29407460
  2. Our data establish a critical link between oAbeta1-42, a major pathological component of Alzheimer's disease and TREM2 PMID: 29587871
  3. These data suggest that the Alzheimer's disease-associated TREM2 R47H variant increases risk for Alzheimer's disease by conferring a loss of TREM2 function and enhancing neuritic dystrophy around plaques. PMID: 29859094
  4. Data indicate a novel role for PS1 in regulating TREM2 intracellular trafficking and pathophysiological function. PMID: 29611543
  5. whereas complete TREM2 deficiency protected against tau-mediated microglial activation and atrophy, TREM2 haploinsufficiency elevated expression of proinflammatory markers and exacerbated atrophy at a late stage of disease. The differential effects of partial and complete loss of TREM2 on microglial function and tau pathology PMID: 30232263
  6. TREM2 plays a crucial role in altering the proinflammatory M1 microglia to M2 phenotype and has beneficial effects in the immune pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. PMID: 29621548
  7. Overexpression of TREM2 downregulated the levels of IL-1beta, ameliorated T396 expression, inhibited the activity of GSK-3beta, and improved sickness behavior. Increased Arg1 expression and a high level of synaptophysin were also observed in the transgenic mice following TREM2 overexpression. PMID: 29689568
  8. These studies of the role of TREM2 in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration suggest that impairing microglial TREM2 signaling reduces pure tauopathy. PMID: 29073081
  9. This article suggests a potential explanation of why TREM2-deficient microglia are unable to respond to neurotoxic plaques in the Alzheimer's disease brain and highlight a further need to understand microglial biology. PMID: 28978423
  10. TREM2 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through the aspect of post-ischemic inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. PMID: 28592261
  11. Results suggest that TREM2 plays a critical role in inflammation and neuronal cell survival and in neurogenesis. Study showed that TREM2 is a soluble protein transported by macrophages through ventricle walls and choroid plexus, and then enters the brain parenchyma via radial glial cells. TREM2 protein is essential for neuroplasticity and myelination. A lack of TREM2 protein may accelerate aging. PMID: 27662313
  12. TREM2 deficiency influences both acute and chronic responses to traumatic brain injury, with altered macrophage response early on and improved functional outcome at later time points. PMID: 26976047
  13. A central role of TREM2 is in the regulation of microglia response to acute neurotoxic insults. PMID: 28189343
  14. Loss of TREM2 reduces the ability of microglia to engulf amyloid beta-peptide. PMID: 27402340
  15. TREM2 and TREML2 play opposite roles in microglia activation. PMID: 27143430
  16. Our study suggests that Vps35/retromer is responsible for recycling of Trem2 in the regulation of microglial function such as proinflammatory responses, whereas R47H mutation impairs Trem2 trafficking, which might contribute to Alzheimer disease. PMID: 27717139
  17. sTREM2 plays a crucial role in regulating microglial cell survival and inflammatory responses. PMID: 28209725
  18. Microglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients carrying TREM2 risk variants and TREM2-deficient mice with AD-like pathology have abundant autophagic vesicles, as do TREM2-deficient macrophages under growth-factor limitation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Study concludes that TREM2 enables microglial responses during AD by sustaining cellular energetic and biosynthetic metabolism. PMID: 28802038
  19. This study demonstrate a critical role of TREM2-mediated Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in microglial viability and suggest that modulating this pathway therapeutically may help to combat the impaired microglial survival. PMID: 28077724
  20. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an immunoglobulin-like receptor of the TREM family and is expressed on activated macrophages, immature dendritic cells, osteoclasts, and microglia. PMID: 28398927
  21. TREM2 deficiency may disrupt the formation of a neuroprotective microglia barrier that regulates amyloid compaction and insulation PMID: 27196974
  22. TREM2 deficiency has opposing effects on Alzheimer's disease-related pathologies at early and late stages of disease progression. PMID: 28100745
  23. TREM2 protects from Alzheimer's disease by enabling microglia to surround and alter Abeta plaque structure, thereby limiting neuritic damage. PMID: 27091843
  24. Recent studies have revealed that activated microglia in the spinal dorsal horn exacerbate neuropathic pain, which has suggested that suppression of microglial activity should be considered as a therapeutic target. However, only a few molecules have been identified as regulators of microglial activity. In this study, we focused on a receptor complex of TREM2 and DAP12, both of which are expressed by microglia and have bee PMID: 27798193
  25. The authors demonstrate that a TREM2 loss-of-function mutation causes brain-wide metabolic alterations pointing toward a possible function of microglia in regulating brain glucose metabolism. PMID: 28559417
  26. flow cytometry analyses indicated significantly lower surface expression of T66M TREM2 variant than wild type or other TREM2 variants PMID: 28490631
  27. Study found that TREM2 was upregulated in the brain of P301S mice, an animal model of tau pathology, during disease progression and showed that TREM2 overexpression rescued spatial cognitive impairments and ameliorated neuropathologies including neuronal and synaptic loss as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. PMID: 26802771
  28. This study showed that TREM-2 deficiency restricts the inflammatory response, thereby decreasing organ damage and mortality. PMID: 27253382
  29. TREM2 attenuates tau kinase activity through restriction of neuroinflammation, and thus protects against tau pathology. PMID: 26364736
  30. TREM2 is involved in prion-induced microglial activation but does not noticeably modulate the pathogenesis of experimental prion infections. PMID: 25816748
  31. These findings provide a novel interpretation of Brucella intracellular growth through inhibition of NO production produced by TREM-2-mediated activated macrophages. PMID: 25563793
  32. TREM-1/TREM-3 macrophage expression improved host defense against Klebsiella-derived pneumosepsis, whereas TREM-2 did not have a role. PMID: 25860078
  33. These findings place TREM2 as a key regulator of microglia activation in vivo in response to tissue damage PMID: 25631124
  34. TREM-2 has a protective effect on inflammatory response of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in mice. PMID: 24916365
  35. results support a role of DAP12 in stabilizing TREM2-CTF, thereby protecting against excessive pro-inflammatory responses. PMID: 25957402
  36. Corpus callosum microglia normally expand with age, but aged Trem2(-/-) mice had fewer microglia with an abnormal morphology which failed to amplify transcripts indicative of activation, phagocytosis, and lipid catabolism in response to myelin damage. PMID: 25893602
  37. Data (including data from studies using knockout mice) suggest that TREM2 is expressed on alveolar macrophages and lung mucosa and plays role innate immunity during pneumococcal pneumonia; knockout of TREM2 increases phagocytosis and survival. PMID: 24945405
  38. viral replication increases lung macrophage levels of intracellular and cell surface TREM-2, and this action prevents macrophage apoptosis PMID: 25897174
  39. TREM2 knockdown reduced microglial activation, decreased phagocytosis of injured neurons and worsened stroke damage. PMID: 25716838
  40. Upon infection with Escherichia coli, the otherwise beneficial effect of an exaggerated early immune response in TREM-2(-/-) animals was counteracted by a 50% reduction in bacterial phagocytosis. PMID: 25477281
  41. important role for TREM2 in inflammatory macrophages and neuroinflammation PMID: 25732305
  42. TREM2 detects damage-associated lipid patterns associated with neurodegeneration, sustaining the microglial response to beta-amyloid accumulation. PMID: 25728668
  43. TREM2 promotes adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity by upregulating adipogenic regulators in conjunction with inhibiting the Wnt10b/beta-catenin signaling pathway. PMID: 25114293
  44. It may play a protective role against aging-related neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. PMID: 24368090
  45. These data suggest that TREM2 is important for the microglial response to Amyloid-beta deposition PMID: 24893973
  46. Results suggest that an epigenetic mechanism involving an aluminum-triggered, NF-kB-sensitive, miRNA-34a-mediated down-regulation of triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) expression may impair phagocytic responses. PMID: 23778113
  47. TREM-2-mediated bacterial killing is dependent on the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID: 24383713
  48. TREM2 protein is expressed only in microglia/macrophages and is developmentally downregulated in a region-dependent manner. PMID: 23977213
  49. TREM2 governs Kupffer cell activation and explains belr1 genetic resistance to malaria liver stage infection. PMID: 24218563
  50. Trem-2 plays an important role in the host defense response to sepsis by enhancing bacterial clearance. PMID: 23721075

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Subcellular Location [Isoform 1]: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.; [Isoform 2]: Secreted.
Tissue Specificity Expressed in the brain, specifically in microglia (at protein level). Expressed in macrophages (at protein level). Expressed at higher levels in the CNS, heart and lung than in lymph nodes or in other non-lymphoid tissues such as kidney, liver and testis.
Database Links

KEGG: mmu:83433

STRING: 10090.ENSMUSP00000024791

UniGene: Mm.261623

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