Cytokine that binds to and signals through the IL1RL2/IL-36R receptor which in turn activates NF-kappa-B and MAPK signaling pathways in target cells linked to a pro-inflammatory response. Part of the IL-36 signaling system that is thought to be present in epithelial barriers and to take part in local inflammatory response; similar to the IL-1 system with which it shares the coreceptor IL1RAP. Stimulates production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in synovial fibrobasts, articular chondrocytes and mature adipocytes. Induces expression of a number of antimicrobial peptides including beta-defensins 4 and 103 as well as a number of matrix metalloproteases. Seems to be involved in skin inflammatory response by acting on keratinocytes, dendritic cells and indirectly on T-cells to drive tissue infiltration, cell maturation and cell proliferation. In cultured keratinocytes induces the expression of macrophage, T-cell, and neutrophil chemokines, such as CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL2, CCL17, CCL22, CL20, CCL5, CCL2, CCL17, CCL22, CXCL8, CCL20 and CXCL1, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-8 and IL-6.
|Gene References into Functions
- IL-36-mediated IL-6 and CXCL8 production in human lung fibroblasts and bronchial epithelial cells may be involved in pulmonary inflammation especially caused by bacterial or viral infections. PMID: 28869889
- With a focus on the skin as a target for microbial and viral invasion, the current knowledge of IL-36: IL-36alpha, IL-36beta and IL-36gamma, functions is reviewed. One physiological function of the IL-36smay be to counteract microbial immune evasion. [Review] PMID: 28811383
- IL36B expression is induced in keratinocytes by Toll-like receptor ligands suggesting a function in barrier immune defense. PMID: 22318382
- IL-1F8 functions as an inducer of antimicrobial peptide and matrix metalloproteinase expression by keratinocytes; IL-1F8 is overexpressed in transgenic psoriatic model mouse skin. PMID: 21242515
- IL-1F6 and IL-1F8, in addition to IL-1F9, activate the pathway leading to NF-kappaB in an IL-1Rrp2-dependent manner in Jurkat cells PMID: 14734551
- Joint and serum IL-1F8 protein levels did not correlate with inflammation, but they were high in samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis PMID: 16646978