||Cytokine that binds to and signals through the IL1RL2/IL-36R receptor which in turn activates NF-kappa-B and MAPK signaling pathways in target cells linked to a pro-inflammatory response. Part of the IL-36 signaling system that is thought to be present in epithelial barriers and to take part in local inflammatory response; similar to the IL-1 system with which it shares the coreceptor IL1RAP. Stimulates production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in synovial fibrobasts, articular chondrocytes and mature adipocytes. Induces expression of a number of antimicrobial peptides including beta-defensin 4 and beta-defensin 103 as well as a number of matrix metalloproteases (By similarity). Seems to be involved in skin inflammatory response by acting on keratinocytes, dendritic cells and indirectly on T-cells to drive tissue infiltration, cell maturation and cell proliferation. Induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), including IL-12, Il-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-23, and activates p38 MAPK phosphorylation in BMDCs. Involved in dendritic cell maturation by stimulating the surface expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC class II. Induces the production of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-17 by T-helper 1 (Th1) cells, cultured CD4(+) T-cells and splenocytes.
|Gene References into Functions
- IL-36 promotes myeloid cell infiltration, activation, and inflammatory activity in skin PMID: 24829417
- Interleukin-36 (IL-36) ligands require processing for full agonist (IL-36alpha, IL-36beta, and IL-36gamma) or antagonist (IL-36Ra) activity PMID: 21965679
- A critical role of IL-36R ligands in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity, leading to the stimulation of T helper responses. PMID: 21860022
- The interleukin-1-related cytokine IL-1F8 is expressed in glial cells, but fails to induce any of the classical IL-1 responses in glial cells. PMID: 15749024