Recombinant Human Pleiotrophin protein(PTN) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002931HU
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Product Details

Purity >96% as determined by SDS?PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity was measured by its ability to enhance neurite outgrowth of E16?E18 rat embryonic cortical neurons, when neurons were plated on 96 well culture plates that had been pre?coated with 100 ?l/well of a solution of 5?10 ug/ml rHuPTN.
Target Names PTN
Uniprot No. P21246
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names HARP; HB-GAM; HBBM; HBGAM; HBGF-8; HBGF8; HBNF; HBNF-1; HBNF1; heparin affin regulatory protein; Heparin binding growth associated molecule; Heparin binding growth factor 8; Heparin binding neurite outgrowth promoting factor 1; Heparin-binding brain mitogen; Heparin-binding growth factor 8; Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule; heparin-binding neurite outgrowth promoting factor; Heparin-binding neurite outgrowth-promoting factor 1; NEGF1; Neurite growth promoting factor 1; Neurite outgrowth-promoting factor; heparin-binding; OSF-1; OSF1; Osteoblast-specific factor 1; pleiotrophin (heparin binding growth factor 8; neurite growth-promoting factor 1); Pleiotrophin; PTN; PTN_HUMAN
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 33-168aa
Complete Sequence GKKEKPEKKV KKSDCGEWQW SVCVPTSGDC GLGTREGTRT GAECKQTMKT QRCKIPCNWK KQFGAECKYQ FQAWGECDLN TALKTRTGSL KRALHNAECQ KTVTISKPCG KLTKPKPQAE SKKKKKEGKK QEKMLD
Mol. Weight 15.3 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 m filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Secreted growth factor that induces neurite outgrowth and which is mitogenic for fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells
Gene References into Functions
  1. Molecular crosstalk between tumour-associated macrophages and glioma stem cells through PTN-PTPRZ1 paracrine signalling supports glioblastoma malignant growth. PMID: 28569747
  2. Expression of Mac-1 on the surface of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells induced their adhesion and migration to PTN. Accordingly, PTN promoted Mac-1-dependent cell spreading and initiated intracellular signaling manifested in phosphorylation of Erk1/2. PMID: 28939773
  3. This study showed that increased serum pleiotrophin levels are associated with better developed coronary collateral circulation in patients with chronic total occlusion in at least one major coronary artery. PMID: 28885394
  4. Pleiotrophin, a target of miR-384, promotes proliferation, metastasis and lipogenesis in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 28557334
  5. Elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients suggest their involvement in this disease. PMID: 27903979
  6. High PTN and N-syndecan expression was closely associated with metastasis and poor prognosis, suggesting that they may promote tumor progression and perineural invasion in the orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. PMID: 28638231
  7. PTN expression in glioma cells is associated with chromosome 7 gain. PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells. PMID: 27806344
  8. an early extracellular space disruption of PTN composition induces short- and long-term defaults in the establishment of proper functional cerebellar circuit. PMID: 26399645
  9. NK cells promote fetal development through the secretion of growth-promoting factors, pleiotrophin and osteoglycin. PMID: 29262349
  10. PTN knockdown attenuated the progression of experimental PVR in vivo. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PVR. PMID: 28083679
  11. Annealing helicase HARP closes RPA-stabilized DNA bubbles non-processively. PMID: 28334870
  12. Neural precursor cell (NPC):glioma cell communication underpins the propensity of glioma to colonize the lateral ventricle subventricular zone (SVZ) through secretion of chemoattractant signals toward which glioma cells home; analyses of SVZ NPC-secreted factors revealed the neurite outgrowth-promoting factor pleiotrophin, with required SPARC/SPARCL1 and HSP90B as mediators of this chemoattractant effect. PMID: 28823557
  13. these data indicate that PTN-PTPRZ-A signaling controls the timing of oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation in vivo, in which the CS moiety of PTPRZ receptors maintains them in a monomeric active state until its ligand binding. PMID: 27445335
  14. PTN could be considered as a potential biomarker for the presence of breast cancer. PMID: 28041942
  15. this study shows that the expression of PTN is significantly downregulated in keloid fibroblasts compared to normal human fibroblasts PMID: 27465069
  16. findings link pleiotrophin abundance in gliomas with survival in humans and mice, and show that pleiotrophin promotes glioma progression through increased VEGF deposition and vascular abnormalization. PMID: 26645582
  17. PTN levels in amniotic fluid were found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by chorioamnionitis than in healthy pregnancies. PMID: 27089523
  18. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer PMID: 26914549
  19. Data show that binding of pleiotrophin (PTN) to neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) stimulated the internalization and recycling of NRP-1 at the cell surface. PMID: 26408254
  20. PTN and its signaling components may be of significance in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID: 25418856
  21. High serum pleiotrophin levels are associated with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 25743809
  22. PTN expression in glioma was higher than in paratumor tissues. Overexpression was associated with the WHO grade, low Karnofsky score, time to recurrence, and poor survival. Co-expression of midkine and PTN had a worse prognosis than either alone. PMID: 25001988
  23. PTN was found to express abnormally high in lung cancer, especially small cell lung cancer tissue. PMID: 25864755
  24. antagonizes the cell-cycle-stimulating activity associated with Brd2, thus enhancing induced neuronal differentiation PMID: 24695857
  25. Over expression of PTN is significantly correlated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. PMID: 25436328
  26. Suppression of PTN activity with an anti-PTN antibody promoted apoptosis of cells. PMID: 24698102
  27. pleiotrophin is transactivated directly by SOX2, a transcription factor essential for the maintenance of both neural stem cells and glioblastoma stem cells. PMID: 23686309
  28. Ligand independent activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) results when the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) interacts with its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta-zeta (RPTPbeta-zeta). Review) PMID: 23777859
  29. PTN is able to induce ex vivo angiogenesis during aging. PMID: 23481101
  30. elevated expression of PTN is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar (HS). PMID: 23054143
  31. NDC80, NUF2 and PTN were significantly aberrantly overexpressed in serous adenocarcinomas. PMID: 23056589
  32. Soluble rhMDK, rmMDK and rhPTN were expressed at a high-level and the protein was purified by a one-step purification using heparin affinity chromatography. Activity of purified rhMDK and rhPTN was confirmed by a cell proliferation assay. PMID: 22871361
  33. pleiotrophin (PTN) was significantly overexpressed across all our macrodactyly samples. The mitogenic functions of PTN correlate closely with the clinical characteristics of macrodactyly. PMID: 22848377
  34. Data suggest a physiological role for HARP in modulating (i.e., antagonizing) endogenous anticoagulant activity of heparin-like material in the vasculature. PMID: 22672269
  35. Our data suggest that PTN is implicated in human prostate cancer growth in vivo PMID: 22783964
  36. this study shows that PTN expression is upregulated in a mouse model of peritoneal fibrosis and is present in human peritoneal tissues and in peritoneal dialysate effluent. PMID: 21881556
  37. in postmenopausal women, the PTN gene promoter polymorphism -1227C>T and CT haplotype could contribute to the genetic background of osteoporosis. PMID: 21353611
  38. in the prostate pleiotrophin (Ptn) functions as a regulator of both mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation, and that androgens regulate Ptn levels. PMID: 20812209
  39. results demonstrate that P(122-131) inhibits biological activities that are related to the induction of a transformed phenotype in PCa cells, by interacing with RPTPbeta-zeta and interfering with other pleiotrophin receptors PMID: 20738847
  40. The role of PTN and its involvement in tumor growth and angiogenesis, is summarized. PMID: 20167557
  41. molecular mechanism of the interactions between the oligosaccharides and pleiotrophin PMID: 20584902
  42. Overexpression of pleiotrophin is associated with glioblastoma. PMID: 20013808
  43. Midkine and pleiotrophin have bactericidal properties: preserved antibacterial activity in a family of heparin-binding growth factors during evolution. PMID: 20308059
  44. The data suggest that PTN expression in the human plaques may be in part regulated by IFN-gamma and that PTN is involved in the adaptive immunity. PMID: 19917672
  45. Using in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AIDS patients, the authors showed that PTN was sufficient to induce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. PMID: 20032204
  46. combination of SDF-1, PTN, IGF2, and EFNB1 mimics the DA phenotype-inducing property of SDIA and was sufficient to promote differentiation of hESC to functional midbrain DA neurons PMID: 19672298
  47. Pleiotrophin signaling through anaplastic lymphoma kinase is rate-limiting for glioblastoma growth. PMID: 11809760
  48. overexpression of Pleiotrophin is associated with inflammation and pancreatic cancer PMID: 11895915
  49. induced the stimulation of tritiated thymidine incorporation in quiescent human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependant manner PMID: 11936877
  50. PTN induces weak chemotactic and strong haptotactic migration of glioblastoma and cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. PMID: 14692702
  51. In the present study, we demonstrate that HARP is secreted in human mature milk with concentrations ranging from 17.68+/-6.4ng/ml in mature milk to 59.9+/-11.22ng/ml in colostrum. PMID: 14715276
  52. angiogenic factor HARP can also negatively regulate the angiogenic activity of VEGF165 PMID: 15001987
  53. in the OSF1 transgenic line, bone mass increase was evident in female, but not male, mice [OSF1] PMID: 15108072
  54. Results describe the influence of mechanical loading on heparin binding growth associated molecule (HB-GAM) expression in bone cells. PMID: 15184074
  55. Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule is overexpressed in malignant glioma cells and is involved in tumor growth. PMID: 15684595
  56. RPTPbeta/zeta is a receptor of HARP in human endothelial cells PMID: 15797857
  57. JUN-dependent expression of PTN and SDF-1 in fibroblasts has a role in keratinocyte proliferation PMID: 15840658
  58. report on the presence and purification of two naturally occurring forms of PTN (18 and 15 kDa) that differentially promote glioblastoma migration and proliferation PMID: 15908427
  59. HARP seems to act as an important regulator of diverse biological activities in human prostate cancer cells PMID: 15924335
  60. PTN signals new blood vessel formation through its ability to stimulate different functions in different cell types not limited to the endothelial cell PMID: 15949466
  61. conclude that pleiotrophin(PTN) is a rate-limiting growth factor in glioblastoma PMID: 15986444
  62. results demonstrate that PTN inhibits HIV infection and suggest that the cell surface-expressed nucleolin is a low affinity receptor for PTN binding to cells and it is also implicated in PTN entry into cells by an active process PMID: 16156786
  63. results show that heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP) is important for human prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration and establish role of activator protein-1 in up-regulation of HARP expression by low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide PMID: 16199533
  64. the binding of pleiotrophin to chondroitin sulfate is regulated by chain length and oversulfated structures PMID: 16373346
  65. The data demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway, PKC, PKA, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK participated in the mechanical downregulation of HB-GAM expression. PMID: 16513091
  66. HARP mediates FGF2 stimulatory effects on prostate cancer cells. PMID: 16940294
  67. This is the first description of the expression of PTN by human MCs and the data suggest that it is rapidly induced in cells that are triggered to migrate. PMID: 16985521
  68. PTN signaling may have a critical role in chromosomal segregation and cell cycle progression. PMID: 17067552
  69. Data suggest that increased tyrosine phosphorylation of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta substrates in pleiotrophin-stimulated cells is sufficient to coordinately stimulate the functions needed for an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID: 17098867
  70. Pleiotrophin is a neurotrophic factor for spinal motor neurons PMID: 17360581
  71. PTN was identified as a factor that plays a role in the nigrostriatal system during development and in response to disease, and may therefore be useful for neuroprotection or reconstruction of the dopamine PMID: 17368428
  72. Inhibition of PTN with a polyclonal anti-PTN antibody reduced growth and enhanced apoptosis of MM cell lines and freshly isolated bone marrow tumor cells from MM patients PMID: 17369488
  73. PTN expression is associated with histopathological grade of astrocytomas PMID: 17443289
  74. Pleiotrophin is present in pathologic human intervertebral discs, and its prevalence and distribution suggest that it may play a role in neovascularization of diseased or damaged disc tissue PMID: 17515817
  75. secretion of PTN through stimulation of the stromal cell microenvironment alone may be sufficient to account for significant features of breast cancer progression. PMID: 17578909
  76. Inhibition of the mitogenic, angiogenic, and tumorigenic activities of PTN by a synthetic peptide corresponding to its C-thrombospondin repeat-I domain. PMID: 17607711
  77. phosphorylation of ALK in PTN-stimulated cells is mediated through the PTN/RPTPbeta/zeta signaling pathway PMID: 17681947
  78. identified the exact molecular domain involved in inhibition of HARP-induced mitogenesis PMID: 17727841
  79. An autologous PTN-pleiotrophin receptor (PTPRZ1) signaling loop is present in human embryonic stem cells and functions here predominantly via an antiapoptotic effect. PMID: 17823238
  80. HARP negatively affects diverse biological activities in C6 glioma cells, mainly due to binding of HARP to VEGF, which may sequester secreted VEGF from signalling through VEGFR2. PMID: 17881084
  81. Pleiotrophin failed to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in neuroblastoma/glioblastoma cells expressing this receptor. ALK is still an orphan receptor in vertebrates. PMID: 17904822
  82. MMP-2 processing of HARP and CTGF released vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from angiogenic inhibitory complexes. PMID: 17908800
  83. pleiotrophin potentiates cardiomyocyte cell death, at least partially, through inhibition of AKT signaling PMID: 17925408
  84. PTN was expressed in HSCs, Kupffer cells, and hepatocytes in fibrotic liver. We propose that pleitrophin specifically antagonizes the TGFbeta1 activity during liver fibrosis PMID: 18381592
  85. These results emphasize the importance of PTN in the regulation of inflammatory processes. PMID: 18486628
  86. pleiotrophin (PTN) and syndecan-2 and -3 as direct binding partners of Y-P30. PMID: 18599487
  87. found in 63.2% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma specimens PMID: 18716876
  88. PTN through its receptor RPTPbeta/zeta is a mediator of the stimulatory effects of eNOS/NO on human endothelial and prostate cancer cell migration PMID: 19058221
  89. Vasculogenesis in human multiple myeloma may develop from tumoral production of PTN, which orchestrates the transdifferentiation of monocytes into vascular endothelial cells. PMID: 19060246
  90. The two AP-1 binding sites of the ptn promoter are involved in the serum stimulation of its expression, while SRE involvement seems to be partial and cell type-specific. PMID: 19331172
  91. Application of both mechanical loads resulted in significant alterations of gene expression of PTN (+67%, P = 0.004 in anulus cells; +29%, P = 0.03 in nucleus cells) and aggrecan (+42%, P = 0.03 in anulus cells, -25%, P = 0.03 in nucleus cells). PMID: 19333097
  92. pleiotrophin signal pathway probably participated in neural repair after peripheral nerve injury--REVIEW PMID: 19424734
  93. the expression of HB-GAM, which is known to have stimulating effects on osteogenic differentiation, is rapidly induced by mechanical loading in hMSC-TERT4 cells. PMID: 19577542
  94. Suppression of lung adenocarcinoma through menin and polycomb gene-mediated repression of growth factor pleiotrophin. PMID: 19749796

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Pleiotrophin family
Tissue Specificity Osteoblast and brain.
Database Links

HGNC: 9630

OMIM: 162095

KEGG: hsa:5764

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000341170

UniGene: Hs.371249

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