Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin(THPO) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP003971HU
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity The ED50 as determined in a cell proliferation assay using MO7e human megakaryocytic leukemic cells is less than 10 ng/ml.
Target Names THPO
Uniprot No. P40225
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names C mpl ligand; C-mpl ligand; Megakaryocyte colony stimulating factor; Megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor; Megakaryocyte growth and development factor; Megakaryocyte stimulating factor; MGC163194; MGDF; MKCSF ; ML; MPL ligand; MPLLG; Myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene ligand; Prepro thrombopoietin; THCYT1; THPO; Thrombopoietin; Thrombopoietin nirs variant 1; TPO; TPO_HUMAN
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Mammalian cell
Expression Region 22-353aa
Mol. Weight 37.3 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-tagged and C-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm Filtered 20 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, pH 8.0
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Lineage-specific cytokine affecting the proliferation and maturation of megakaryocytes from their committed progenitor cells. It acts at a late stage of megakaryocyte development. It may be the major physiological regulator of circulating platelets.
Gene References into Functions
  1. The expression of TPO and c-Mpl was significantly decreased in the cITP group compared to the nITP group, suggesting that TPO and its receptor may play important roles in childhood cITP pathogenesis. PMID: 29313460
  2. FISH study showed no cytogenetic abnormalities in any of the analyzed cases. PMID: 16682284
  3. results confirm that TPO acts as an acute phase protein but exclude the possibility that it is uniquely responsible for thrombocytosis of inflammatory disorders, which might recognize in IL-6 a credible candidate as a cooperating factor. PMID: 18041648
  4. evidence for the presence of a low TPO gene expression transcript in B-CLL cells; early B-cell CLL circulating level of TPO does not provide a useful insight into the complex interrelationship of prognostic variables PMID: 18203013
  5. Thrombopoietin levels are increased in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome; TPO may have a role in thrombocytosis, which frequently develops from thrombocytopenia in SARS patients PMID: 18314161
  6. separate binding sites on the Mpl receptor for TPO and hNUDC identified PMID: 20529857
  7. Tensin2 is an important new mediator in TPO/c-Mpl pathway; Tensin2 becomes phosphorylated in a TPO dependent manner. PMID: 21527831
  8. perioperative TPO dynamics are associated with postoperative LD. Postoperative TPO levels were found to be lowest in high-risk patients (HCC patients undergoing major resection) but showed an independent predictive value. PMID: 25611592
  9. Data indicate thrombopoietin (TPO) as potential early prognostic biomarker in acute pancreatitis (AP) patients. PMID: 28079612
  10. These studies demonstrate that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in THPO cause bone marrow failure, which is unresponsive to transplant due to a hematopoietic cell-extrinsic mechanism. PMID: 28559357
  11. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models PMID: 28456746
  12. High Thrombopoietin expression is associated with immune thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. PMID: 26840092
  13. Colorectal cancer tumor-initiating cells (TICs) expressing CD110, the thrombopoietin (TPO)-binding receptor, mediate liver metastasis. We show that TPO promotes metastasis of CD110+ TICs to the liver by activating lysine degradation. PMID: 26140605
  14. decreased TPO levels or decreased bone marrow production of platelets may not be a cause of thrombocytopenia in chronic hepatitis C PMID: 25728497
  15. WASP, RUNX1, and ANKRD26 genes are important for normal TPO signaling and the network underlying thrombopoiesis. PMID: 26175287
  16. Data suggest that elevated serum level of thrombopoietin may serve as unfavorable marker of stage of multiple myeloma. PMID: 25323752
  17. The regulation of OCs by TPO highlights a novel therapeutic target for bone loss diseases and may be important to consider in the numerous hematologic disorders associated with alterations in TPO/c-mpl signaling PMID: 25656774
  18. TPO was greatly enhanced in HPT in comparison with ITP patients (958 +/- 659 and 11 +/- 27 pg/ml, p < 0.001). In the ITP group a reverse correlation was detected between TPO and glycocalicin (r = -0.373, p = 0.006). PMID: 25472766
  19. observations suggest that NRP-1 is involved in megakaryocytopoiesis through complex formation with PDGFRs, and that NRP-1-PDGFR-complexes may contribute to effective cellular functions mediated by TPO and PDGF in megakaryocytic cells PMID: 25744030
  20. An Arg->Cys substitution at residue 38 or residue 17 excluding the 21-AA signal peptide of the receptor binding domain was found in a family with aplastic anemia. Adding a 5th cysteine may disrupt normal disulfide bonding & receptor binding. PMID: 24085763
  21. increased plasma thrombopoietin levels were associated with a favorable prognosis of bone marrow failure and could, therefore, represent a reliable marker for a benign subset of myelodysplastic syndrome. PMID: 23403320
  22. Increased TPO levels may increase both platelet count and platelet size, resulting in more hemostatic tendency, which may contribute to the progression of ischemic stroke. PMID: 22327824
  23. Platelet count and serum thrombopoietin level as predictors for morbidity and/or mortality in thrombocytopenic neonates. PMID: 22980223
  24. Data indicate increased levels of serum thrombopoietin (TPO) were found in necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID: 22698803
  25. Mutation in the THPO gene is not associated with aplastic anaemia in Japanese children. PMID: 22686250
  26. Thrombopoietin is a biomarker and mediator of cardiovascular damage in critical diseases [review] PMID: 22577249
  27. Findings establish that Clock regulates Thpo and Mpl expression in vivo, and demonstrate an important link between the body's circadian timing mechanisms and megakaryopoiesis. PMID: 22284746
  28. Overstimulation of the THPO pathway might therefore predispose to clonal hematopoietic disease and to congenital abnormalities. PMID: 22453305
  29. Data show that serum thrombopoietin levels in the affected family members were significantly higher than in the non-affected family members or healthy controls. PMID: 22194398
  30. pattern of megakaryocytopoiesis is associated with up-regulated thrombopoietin (TPO) signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and elevated levels of full-length GATA-1 and its targets PMID: 21304100
  31. Human thrombopoietin knockin mice efficiently support human hematopoiesis in vivo. PMID: 21262827
  32. Findings thus suggest that decreased thrombopoietin production accompanying liver dysfunction may be related to thrombocytopenia besides myelosuppression in anorexia nervosa with malnutrition. PMID: 19810087
  33. TPO negatively modulates cardiac inotropy in vitro and contributes to the myocardial depressing activity of septic shock serum PMID: 20467749
  34. Overexpreeeion of human thrombopoietin increased the platelet level in the transfected mice. PMID: 11877062
  35. Mutations in the 5' untranslated region of the TPO gene are not the cause of the normal or elevated TPO levels in acquired essential thrombocythemia. PMID: 11860444
  36. REVIEW: central role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), andother immune-mediated thrombocytopenias. PMID: 11913997
  37. While there is increased platelet turnover in patients with chronic renal failure, the kidney does not seem to play a major role in the overall Tpo production in the body. PMID: 11960394
  38. binding to platelet thrombopoietin receptor is directly involved in human thrombopoietin plasma level regulation PMID: 11961237
  39. Flt3/Flk-2-ligand in synergy with thrombopoietin may slow down megakaryocyte development by causing increased proliferation of megakaryocyte progenitor cells. PMID: 11983110
  40. In the presence of EPO and SCF and/or IL-3, TPO enhances bone marrow erythropoiesis in cell cultures derived from patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia. PMID: 12041668
  41. Thrombopoietin activates MAPKp42/44, AKT, and STAT proteins in normal human CD34+ cells, megakaryocytes, and platelets. PMID: 12135673
  42. The endogenous levels of TPO, IL-6 and IL-8 are elevated in the thrombocytopenic patients with AML and MDS. PMID: 12187073
  43. induces megakaryocyte-specific glycoprotein VI promoter and its regulation by GATA-1, Fli-1, and Sp1 PMID: 12359731
  44. no difference was found in the cord blood level of thrombopoietin between infants born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension and those without PMID: 12381927
  45. review of TPO role in thrombopoiesis, signal transduction, cellular proliferative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms increasing megakaryocyte numbers PMID: 12430879
  46. levels in children with acute and chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and its relationship with mega-dose methylprednisolone therapy PMID: 12468916
  47. Tpo concentrations in plasma samples taken concurrently from the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery, and the left ventricle showed there were positive correlations between the Tpo levels and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. PMID: 12487786
  48. TPO stimulation of a megakaryocyte cell line activated lyn kinase, shown to be involved in the transduction pathway of the TPO proliferative signal. PMID: 12495897
  49. Production of this protein in human hepatic cell cultures is not affected by IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma. PMID: 12581491
  50. c-mpl mutations are the cause not only for the hypomegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, but also for the development of an aplastic anemia (AA) in patients with CAMT PMID: 12799278
  51. Hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and expansion is reduced 10-20-fold after transplantation of normal stem cells into thrombopoietin null mice PMID: 12799280
  52. identification of a potential "silencer" sequence in intron 5 of the TPO gene PMID: 12829024
  53. results suggest that one mechanism of thrombocytopenia in patients with cGVHD is low TPO production by BM cells PMID: 12879435
  54. Thrombopoietin cooperates with FLT3-L, inducing CD34+ HPCs to undergo a 400-fold expansion in cell numbers. PMID: 14670916
  55. Increased serum TPO levels in patients with thrombocytosis in lung cancer which may be related to the activity of neoplasms. PMID: 14689068
  56. structure-function relationships in TPO and the activation scheme of c-Mpl PMID: 14769915
  57. IL-1beta up-regulates the expression of TPO in megakaryocytic cells. PMID: 14966463
  58. The maximal promoter activity of c-mpl was obtained 24 hr after pretreatment with TPO for 3 hr PMID: 14995067
  59. Decreased production of platelets by megakaryocytes due to low thrombopoietin concentration could be a possible cause of thrombocytopenia in liver cirrhosis. PMID: 15239259
  60. Thrombopoietin induces HOXA9 nuclear transport in immature hematopoietic cells PMID: 15254242
  61. Altered regulation of the TPO gene might be involved in the pathogenesis of familial thrombocytosis. PMID: 15282677
  62. The Thrombopoietin altered expression provide an opportunity to diagnose and identify subpopulations of MPD patients. PMID: 15572213
  63. expression of TPO receptor on platelets until 1 month after birth cause a decreased TPO clearance and keep a high level of free TPO in blood, resulting in the subsequent thrombocytosis in preterm infants. PMID: 15647951
  64. mechanisms by which THPO can influence stem cell development PMID: 15705785
  65. The effect of THPO on HuMCs in the presence of rhSCF varies, depending on the relative concentration of each growth factor, while THPO alone or in combination with rhSCF supports a unique population of CD117low/CD110+ HuMCs. PMID: 15781331
  66. TPO integrates G(i), but not G(q), stimulation, supports integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation platelet aggregation independently of phospholipase C but requires PI3-kinase and Rap1B PMID: 15863506
  67. Data describe coculture of human peripheral blood cells and mouse stromal cells transfected with c-kit ligand, thrombopoietin, flt-3/flk2 ligand, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF or with weekly addition of these cytokines. PMID: 16305336
  68. in patients with AML, inadequate TPO levels are secondary to TPO clearing by functional c-mpl receptor myeloid blast cells and that TPO may serve as an in vivo myeloid leukemic growth factor PMID: 16317100
  69. Preoperative serum thrombopoietin levels are higher in patients with ovarian cancer than with benign cysts PMID: 16359773
  70. in HIV infected patients, both the serum thrombopoietin (TPO) levels and the TPO-c-Mpl complexes on the platelet surface were significantly elevated PMID: 16454716
  71. thrombocytopenia in dengue disease is associated with changes in the serum levels of thrombopoietin, but not interleukin-11 PMID: 16759877
  72. human neonatal and adult megakaryocytes have substantially different biologic responses to Tpo and potentially to other cytokines PMID: 16888093
  73. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative splicing of THPO intron 2 that arises from the activation of a cryptic 3' splice site 85 nt upstream of the authentic 3' splice site. PMID: 17158158
  74. THPO and VEGF play an important synergistic role in the formation of early ES-derived hematopoietic progenitors that occurs through the c-mpl and VEGF receptors. PMID: 17379761
  75. thrombopoietin has a role in mast cell differentiation [review] PMID: 17468237
  76. This expt. supports the idea that the proximal portion of the thromobopoietin receptor is required for HSC renewal PMID: 17637498
  77. Circulating levels of thrombopoietin may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage. PMID: 17706203
  78. Increased TPO levels and the percentage of reticulated platelets indicate that thrombocytopoiesis is more active in prematurity. PMID: 17763151
  79. TPO is an important growth factor that can promote endothelial precursor cells expansion ex vivo PMID: 17827152
  80. A sensitive index of thombopoiesis activity in colorectal cancer. PMID: 18061247
  81. Mutation analysis in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia helps to predict the clinical course and to provide optimal therapy. PMID: 18090929
  82. analysis of a family with a splice donor mutation in the thrombopoietin gene that causes hereditary thrombocythemia PMID: 18367486
  83. Summarize the structure and functions of THPO through the published evidence on its splicing isoforms and discuss their involvement with physiopathologic phenomena. Review. PMID: 18433726
  84. TPO induces HIF-1alpha expression in a manner very similar to that of hypoxia. PMID: 18473128
  85. THPO transcription is cell line-dependently initiated at two alternative promoters, which we newly designated P1a and P1 PMID: 18617523
  86. Report thrombopoietin level in patients with chronic liver diseases. PMID: 18753991
  87. A family with segregation of G185T TPO mutation in the 5' UTR region in 4 subjects with thrombocythemia. PMID: 19553636
  88. signaling pathways controlling the thrombopoietin signal in normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis PMID: 19630807
  89. Thrombopoietin protects the heart against injury from ischemia/reperfusion by a mechanism involving activation of protein kinases and ATP-dependent potassium channels. PMID: 18006466

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Involvement in disease Thrombocythemia 1 (THCYT1)
Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families EPO/TPO family
Database Links

HGNC: 11795

OMIM: 187950

KEGG: hsa:7066

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000204615

UniGene: Hs.1166

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