Human Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21/UNQ3115/PRO10196) ELISA kit

Code CSB-E16844h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
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Product Details

Target Name
fibroblast growth factor 21
Alternative Names
FGF 21 ELISA Kit; FGF-21 ELISA Kit; Fgf21 ELISA Kit; FGF21_HUMAN ELISA Kit; FGFL ELISA Kit; Fibroblast growth factor 21 ELISA Kit; PRO10196 ELISA Kit; UNQ3115 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation
FGF21
Uniprot No.
Species
Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types
serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates
Detection Range
15.6 pg/mL-1000 pg/mL
Sensitivity
3.9 pg/mL
Assay Time
1-5h
Sample Volume
50-100ul
Detection Wavelength
450 nm
Research Area
Signal Transduction
Assay Principle
quantitative
Measurement
Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human FGF21 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
 SampleSerum(n=4)
1:1Average %90
Range %85-99
1:2Average %89
Range %84-96
1:4Average %97
Range %92-104
1:8Average %93
Range %86-98
Recovery
The recovery of human FGF21 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9590-105
EDTA plasma (n=4)9287-96
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
pg/mlOD1OD2AverageCorrected
10001.989 2.036 2.013 1.811
5001.621 1.641 1.631 1.429
2501.116 1.132 1.124 0.922
1250.682 0.698 0.690 0.488
62.50.498 0.506 0.502 0.300
31.20.375 0.389 0.382 0.180
15.60.286 0.299 0.293 0.091
00.203 0.201 0.202  
Materials provided
  • A micro ELISA plate ---The 96-well plate has been pre-coated with an anti-human FGF21 antibody. This dismountable microplate can be divided into 12 x 8 strip plates.
  • Two vials lyophilized standard ---Dilute a bottle of the standard at dilution series, read the OD values, and then draw a standard curve.
  • One vial Biotin-labeled FGF21 antibody (100 x concentrate) (120 μl/bottle) ---Act as the detection antibody.
  • One vial HRP-avidin (100 x concentrate) (120 μl/bottle) ---Bind to the detection antibody and react with the TMB substrate to make the solution chromogenic.
  • One vial Biotin-antibody Diluent (15 ml/bottle) ---Dilute the Biotin-antibody.
  • One vial HRP-avidin Diluent (15 ml/bottle) ---Dilute the HRP-avidin solution.
  • One vial Sample Diluent (50 ml/bottle)---Dilute the sample to an appropriate concentration.
  • One vial Wash Buffer (25 x concentrate) (20 ml/bottle) ---Wash away unbound or free substances.
  • One vial TMB Substrate (10 ml/bottle) ---Act as the chromogenic agent. TMB interacts with HRP, eliciting the solution turns blue.
  • One vial Stop Solution (10 ml/bottle) ---Stop the color reaction. The solution color immediately turns from blue to yellow.
  • Four Adhesive Strips (For 96 wells) --- Cover the microplate when incubation.
  • An instruction manual
Materials not provided
  • A microplate reader capable of measuring absorbance at 450 nm, with the correction wavelength set at 540 nm or 570 nm.
  • An incubator can provide stable incubation conditions up to 37°C±5°C.
  • Centrifuge
  • Vortex
  • Squirt bottle, manifold dispenser, or automated microplate washer
  • Absorbent paper for blotting the microtiter plate
  • 50-300ul multi-channel micropipette
  • Pipette tips
  • Single-channel micropipette with different ranges
  • 100ml and 500ml graduated cylinders
  • Deionized or distilled water
  • Timer
  • Test tubes for dilution
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Storage
Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time
3-5 working days after you place the order, and it takes another 3-5 days for delivery via DHL or FedEx
Description

This Human FGF21 ELISA Kit was designed for the quantitative measurement of Human FGF21 protein in serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates. It is a Sandwich ELISA kit, its detection range is 15.6 pg/mL-1000 pg/mL and the sensitivity is 3.9 pg/mL .

Citations

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Target Background

Function
(From Uniprot)
Stimulates glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression (but not SLC2A4/GLUT4 expression). Activity requires the presence of KLB. Regulates systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.
Gene References into Functions
  1. The fibroblast growth factor -21 protein was significantly less expressed in liposarcoma than in normal tissue (p<0.05). Fibroblast growth factor -21 protein expression was related to gender, but not age, cell differentiation or tumor size. The patients in the low/no fibroblast growth factor 21 expression group were more likely to relapse and die in a shorter period of time. PMID: 29953859
  2. These findings suggested that the serum FGF21 levels could be involved in a complex adaptive response to insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in humans. PMID: 28225059
  3. Taking together from both physiological and genetic levels, we suggest that FGF21 is inversely associated with regional bone density. PMID: 29299795
  4. besides the NF-kappaB pathway, the mechanism of action of FGF-21 was observed to involve the elevation of IL-10 in the ERK1/2 pathway. PMID: 29427162
  5. ChREBP and FGF21 constitute a signaling axis likely conserved in humans that mediates an essential adaptive response to fructose ingestion that may participate in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. PMID: 28123933
  6. Excess dietary carbohydrate, but not fat, led to markedly increased FGF21 secretion in humans, notably without protein restriction, and affected glucose and lipid homeostais. PMID: 28123934
  7. In patients with coronary artery disease at baseline, an elevated serum FGF21 level was associated with development of a major adverse cardiovascular event in the future. PMID: 29462798
  8. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as an endocrine hormone which regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is involved in maintaining of energy homeostasis and adaptation to starvation and low temperature. PMID: 30198244
  9. FGF21 is a good predictor of acute-on-chronic liver failure and organ failure, is quite specific for cirrhosis, and seems independent of etiology and systemic inflammation. PMID: 29476704
  10. FGF-21 could regulate the immune response indirectly by influencing the glucose uptake of activated monocytes cells. PMID: 28965199
  11. The genetic defect leads to a disorder of mitochondrial translation or mtDNA maintenance. PMID: 27794110
  12. FGF21 levels were reduced after energy-restricted treatments and severely increased after bariatric surgery, independently of the weight reduction magnitude, insulin sensitivity or ketosis; therefore, FGF21 appears to be a marker of severe nutritional stress PMID: 28588304
  13. In HIV-infected individuals, FGF21 is significantly positively associated with liver fat. FGF21 decreases in association with reductions in liver fat, GGT, and FIB4, suggesting that FGF21 is upregulated in the context of steatosis and steatohepatitis and is reduced when these conditions improve PMID: 29031905
  14. crystal structures of free and ligand-bound beta-klotho extracellular regions that reveal the molecular mechanism that underlies the specificity of FGF21 towards beta-klotho and demonstrate how the FGFR is activated in a klotho-dependent manner PMID: 29342135
  15. In this review, we will summarize the current progress on the roles of FGF21 against metaflammation and metabolic tissue damage [Review] PMID: 28887067
  16. This finding suggested FGF21 could be involved in the pathophysiology of diastolic heart failure. PMID: 27650781
  17. FGF21 plasma levels correlate negatively with protein intake. PMID: 28078804
  18. Serum FGF21 level was significantly correlated with left ventricular systolic function at baseline and higher levels resulted in greater levels of cardiac death. PMID: 28821258
  19. In conclusion, our study, which focused on hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression, confirmed marked expression of both molecules in the liver of morbidly obese patients with NAFLD. PMID: 28820393
  20. Serum FGF21 concentrations are decreased in anorexia nervosa and elevated in obesity. They are independently and positively related to BMI and insulin resistance PMID: 28759185
  21. FGF-21 was positively associated with 10-year CHD risk PMID: 28735064
  22. Serum FGF21 level was an independent predictor for new-onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based prospective study. PMID: 29436198
  23. these findings elucidate the involvement of abnormal FGF21 expression in early APAP-induced liver impairment. Interestingly, FGF21 may be a promising biomarker of APAP-exposed livers. PMID: 28591702
  24. Elevated circulating FGF21 level is an independent predictor of incident coronary heard disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 28588089
  25. Studied the role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in metabolic disorders; found FGF21 levels decreased in obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. PMID: 28139438
  26. Data suggest that both osteonectin and FGF21 levels in serum are associated with early nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, albeit with different patterns; persistent hyperglycemia may inhibit bone formation leading to osteoporosis. (FGF21 = fibroblast growth factor 21) PMID: 27916484
  27. As part of the present study, we suggest that both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors can reduce FGF-21 levels independently of body compositions, and these drugs can provide antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic and cardio-protective effects. We also recommend that serum FGF-21 level can be utilized as a tumor biomarker in early-stage breast cancer and for monitoring purposes PMID: 28106545
  28. Data (including data from studies in knockout mice) suggest that dietary manipulations that induce ketosis also lead to increased HPA axis tone; FGF21 knockout mice exhibit blunted HPA response to ketogenic diet relative to wild-type mice; thus, the hepatokine FGF21 appears to play important role in response to ketogenic diet. (HPA axis = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) PMID: 29077838
  29. This study revealed statistically significant associations between FGF21 rs838133 and increased consumption of candy, as well as nominal associations with increased alcohol intake and daily smoking. PMID: 28467924
  30. The ability of FGF21 to decrease LDL cholesterol has now been traced to at least two mechanisms: a suppression of hepatocyte expression of sterol response element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which in turn leads to a reduction in cholesterol synthesis; and up-regulated expression of hepatocyte LDL receptors, reflecting inhibition of a mechanism that promotes proteasomal degradation of these receptors. [review] PMID: 26872317
  31. The objective of this review is to compile existing information about the mechanisms that could allow the control of endogenous FGF21 levels in order to obtain the beneficial metabolic effects of FGF21 by inducing its production instead of doing it by pharmacological administration. [review] PMID: 27583468
  32. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression is altered by a wide array of physiological, metabolic, and environmental factors. [review] PMID: 27285327
  33. As there was no significant association between FGF-21 and growth or IGF-1 both in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, these findings do not support the hypothesis that FGF-21 is involved in growth of obese children. PMID: 26887040
  34. This mini-review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge about the role of FGF21 in cardiovascular disorders, and discuss the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-atherogenic properties of this compound. [review] PMID: 27305706
  35. FGF21 has received particular attention because of its key role in carbohydrate, lipids, and energy balance regulation. FGF21 has an anti-oxidant function in human metabolic diseases which contribute to understanding the FGF21 compensatory increment in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. [review] PMID: 27318658
  36. cholestasis could induce FGF21 expression in FXR dependent manner PMID: 27003131
  37. Serum concentrations of FGF21 are elevated in patients with non-HIV lipodystrophy with adipose tissue and liver being potential sources of increased production. TG and fibrate treatment are independent positive predictors of circulating FGF21. PMID: 27179139
  38. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. (Review) PMID: 28039838
  39. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but it does not contribute to the resistance to diet-induced obesity. PMID: 27184848
  40. Insulin rather than glucose per se increases total and bioactive FGF21 in the postprandial period in adult humans. PMID: 28938434
  41. FGF21 has a role in promoting remyelination in the central nervous system PMID: 28825598
  42. FGF21 genotypes may interact with dietary carbohydrate/fat intake on changes in central adiposity and body fat composition. A low-calorie, high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet was beneficial for overweight or obese individuals carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing allele of the FGF21 variant to improve body composition and abdominal obesity. PMID: 27581055
  43. Higher vitamin D status, but not FGF21, was associated with greater postprandial glucose oxidation and improved insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome. PMID: 28359360
  44. dietary protein dilution promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an select nonessential amino acids insufficiency-induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis PMID: 27548521
  45. In Japanese men, acute endurance exercise lowers serum FGF21 levels 24 h following exercise. The results suggest that acute endurance exercise modulates postprandial FGF21 metabolism regardless of age. PMID: 27453549
  46. Higher circulating FGF21 levels were associated with a high mortality rate, but not cardiovascular events in patient with end-stage renal disease, suggesting that circulating FGF21 levels serve as a predictive marker for mortality in these subjects. PMID: 28582462
  47. FGF21 is not critical for bone homeostasis or actions of PPARalpha and PPARgamma. PMID: 27505721
  48. miR-149 could negatively regulate the protein expression level of FGF-21. PMID: 27061435
  49. As a biomarker for diabetes prediction, serum FGF21 appeared to be superior to other adipokines and, on its own, could be considered as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test. PMID: 27611701
  50. Serum FGF21 rises significantly in humans with acute pancreatitis. The pancreas may be contributing to increased FGF21 levels following injury and FGF21 may play a role in the recovery process. PMID: 27832059

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Subcellular Location
Secreted.
Protein Families
Heparin-binding growth factors family
Database Links

HGNC: 3678

OMIM: 609436

KEGG: hsa:26291

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000222157

UniGene: Hs.283015

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