Recombinant Human Fibroblast growth factor 21 protein(FGF21) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002471HU
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Product Details

Purity >96% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by thymidine uptake assay using FGF-receptors transfected BaF3 cells is less than 0.5 μg/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >2.0x103 IU/mg in the presence of 5 ug/ml of rMuKlotho-β and 10 μg/ml of heparin.
Target Names FGF21
Uniprot No. Q9NSA1
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names FGF 21; FGF-21; Fgf21; FGF21_HUMAN; FGFL; Fibroblast growth factor 21; PRO10196; UNQ3115
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 29-209aa
Mol. Weight 19.4 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Stimulates glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter SLC2A1/GLUT1 expression (but not SLC2A4/GLUT4 expression). Activity requires the presence of KLB.
Gene References into Functions
  1. The fibroblast growth factor -21 protein was significantly less expressed in liposarcoma than in normal tissue (p<0.05). Fibroblast growth factor -21 protein expression was related to gender, but not age, cell differentiation or tumor size. The patients in the low/no fibroblast growth factor 21 expression group were more likely to relapse and die in a shorter period of time. PMID: 29953859
  2. These findings suggested that the serum FGF21 levels could be involved in a complex adaptive response to insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in humans. PMID: 28225059
  3. Taking together from both physiological and genetic levels, we suggest that FGF21 is inversely associated with regional bone density. PMID: 29299795
  4. besides the NF-kappaB pathway, the mechanism of action of FGF-21 was observed to involve the elevation of IL-10 in the ERK1/2 pathway. PMID: 29427162
  5. ChREBP and FGF21 constitute a signaling axis likely conserved in humans that mediates an essential adaptive response to fructose ingestion that may participate in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. PMID: 28123933
  6. Excess dietary carbohydrate, but not fat, led to markedly increased FGF21 secretion in humans, notably without protein restriction, and affected glucose and lipid homeostais. PMID: 28123934
  7. In patients with coronary artery disease at baseline, an elevated serum FGF21 level was associated with development of a major adverse cardiovascular event in the future. PMID: 29462798
  8. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as an endocrine hormone which regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is involved in maintaining of energy homeostasis and adaptation to starvation and low temperature. PMID: 30198244
  9. FGF21 is a good predictor of acute-on-chronic liver failure and organ failure, is quite specific for cirrhosis, and seems independent of etiology and systemic inflammation. PMID: 29476704
  10. FGF-21 could regulate the immune response indirectly by influencing the glucose uptake of activated monocytes cells. PMID: 28965199
  11. The genetic defect leads to a disorder of mitochondrial translation or mtDNA maintenance. PMID: 27794110
  12. FGF21 levels were reduced after energy-restricted treatments and severely increased after bariatric surgery, independently of the weight reduction magnitude, insulin sensitivity or ketosis; therefore, FGF21 appears to be a marker of severe nutritional stress PMID: 28588304
  13. In HIV-infected individuals, FGF21 is significantly positively associated with liver fat. FGF21 decreases in association with reductions in liver fat, GGT, and FIB4, suggesting that FGF21 is upregulated in the context of steatosis and steatohepatitis and is reduced when these conditions improve PMID: 29031905
  14. crystal structures of free and ligand-bound beta-klotho extracellular regions that reveal the molecular mechanism that underlies the specificity of FGF21 towards beta-klotho and demonstrate how the FGFR is activated in a klotho-dependent manner PMID: 29342135
  15. In this review, we will summarize the current progress on the roles of FGF21 against metaflammation and metabolic tissue damage [Review] PMID: 28887067
  16. This finding suggested FGF21 could be involved in the pathophysiology of diastolic heart failure. PMID: 27650781
  17. FGF21 plasma levels correlate negatively with protein intake. PMID: 28078804
  18. Serum FGF21 level was significantly correlated with left ventricular systolic function at baseline and higher levels resulted in greater levels of cardiac death. PMID: 28821258
  19. In conclusion, our study, which focused on hepatic FGF21 and omentin-1 mRNA expression, confirmed marked expression of both molecules in the liver of morbidly obese patients with NAFLD. PMID: 28820393
  20. Serum FGF21 concentrations are decreased in anorexia nervosa and elevated in obesity. They are independently and positively related to BMI and insulin resistance PMID: 28759185
  21. FGF-21 was positively associated with 10-year CHD risk PMID: 28735064
  22. Serum FGF21 level was an independent predictor for new-onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based prospective study. PMID: 29436198
  23. these findings elucidate the involvement of abnormal FGF21 expression in early APAP-induced liver impairment. Interestingly, FGF21 may be a promising biomarker of APAP-exposed livers. PMID: 28591702
  24. Elevated circulating FGF21 level is an independent predictor of incident coronary heard disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 28588089
  25. Studied the role of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in metabolic disorders; found FGF21 levels decreased in obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. PMID: 28139438
  26. Data suggest that both osteonectin and FGF21 levels in serum are associated with early nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, albeit with different patterns; persistent hyperglycemia may inhibit bone formation leading to osteoporosis. (FGF21 = fibroblast growth factor 21) PMID: 27916484
  27. As part of the present study, we suggest that both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors can reduce FGF-21 levels independently of body compositions, and these drugs can provide antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic and cardio-protective effects. We also recommend that serum FGF-21 level can be utilized as a tumor biomarker in early-stage breast cancer and for monitoring purposes PMID: 28106545
  28. Data (including data from studies in knockout mice) suggest that dietary manipulations that induce ketosis also lead to increased HPA axis tone; FGF21 knockout mice exhibit blunted HPA response to ketogenic diet relative to wild-type mice; thus, the hepatokine FGF21 appears to play important role in response to ketogenic diet. (HPA axis = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) PMID: 29077838
  29. This study revealed statistically significant associations between FGF21 rs838133 and increased consumption of candy, as well as nominal associations with increased alcohol intake and daily smoking. PMID: 28467924
  30. The ability of FGF21 to decrease LDL cholesterol has now been traced to at least two mechanisms: a suppression of hepatocyte expression of sterol response element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which in turn leads to a reduction in cholesterol synthesis; and up-regulated expression of hepatocyte LDL receptors, reflecting inhibition of a mechanism that promotes proteasomal degradation of these receptors. [review] PMID: 26872317
  31. The objective of this review is to compile existing information about the mechanisms that could allow the control of endogenous FGF21 levels in order to obtain the beneficial metabolic effects of FGF21 by inducing its production instead of doing it by pharmacological administration. [review] PMID: 27583468
  32. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression is altered by a wide array of physiological, metabolic, and environmental factors. [review] PMID: 27285327
  33. As there was no significant association between FGF-21 and growth or IGF-1 both in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, these findings do not support the hypothesis that FGF-21 is involved in growth of obese children. PMID: 26887040
  34. This mini-review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge about the role of FGF21 in cardiovascular disorders, and discuss the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-atherogenic properties of this compound. [review] PMID: 27305706
  35. FGF21 has received particular attention because of its key role in carbohydrate, lipids, and energy balance regulation. FGF21 has an anti-oxidant function in human metabolic diseases which contribute to understanding the FGF21 compensatory increment in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. [review] PMID: 27318658
  36. cholestasis could induce FGF21 expression in FXR dependent manner PMID: 27003131
  37. Serum concentrations of FGF21 are elevated in patients with non-HIV lipodystrophy with adipose tissue and liver being potential sources of increased production. TG and fibrate treatment are independent positive predictors of circulating FGF21. PMID: 27179139
  38. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. (Review) PMID: 28039838
  39. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but it does not contribute to the resistance to diet-induced obesity. PMID: 27184848
  40. Insulin rather than glucose per se increases total and bioactive FGF21 in the postprandial period in adult humans. PMID: 28938434
  41. FGF21 has a role in promoting remyelination in the central nervous system PMID: 28825598
  42. FGF21 genotypes may interact with dietary carbohydrate/fat intake on changes in central adiposity and body fat composition. A low-calorie, high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet was beneficial for overweight or obese individuals carrying the carbohydrate intake-decreasing allele of the FGF21 variant to improve body composition and abdominal obesity. PMID: 27581055
  43. Higher vitamin D status, but not FGF21, was associated with greater postprandial glucose oxidation and improved insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome. PMID: 28359360
  44. dietary protein dilution promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an select nonessential amino acids insufficiency-induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis PMID: 27548521
  45. In Japanese men, acute endurance exercise lowers serum FGF21 levels 24 h following exercise. The results suggest that acute endurance exercise modulates postprandial FGF21 metabolism regardless of age. PMID: 27453549
  46. Higher circulating FGF21 levels were associated with a high mortality rate, but not cardiovascular events in patient with end-stage renal disease, suggesting that circulating FGF21 levels serve as a predictive marker for mortality in these subjects. PMID: 28582462
  47. FGF21 is not critical for bone homeostasis or actions of PPARalpha and PPARgamma. PMID: 27505721
  48. miR-149 could negatively regulate the protein expression level of FGF-21. PMID: 27061435
  49. As a biomarker for diabetes prediction, serum FGF21 appeared to be superior to other adipokines and, on its own, could be considered as an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test. PMID: 27611701
  50. Serum FGF21 rises significantly in humans with acute pancreatitis. The pancreas may be contributing to increased FGF21 levels following injury and FGF21 may play a role in the recovery process. PMID: 27832059
  51. These findings reveal an iNKT cell-FGF21 axis that defines a new immune-mediated pathway that could be targeted for glycemic control and weight regulation. PMID: 27593966
  52. have identified fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as the endopeptidase responsible for this site-specific cleavage of human FGF21 (hFGF21), and propose that inhibition of FAP may be a therapeutic strategy to increase endogenous levels of active FGF21. PMID: 27118870
  53. NS5ATP6 reduces the promoter activity of FGF21. NS5ATP6 may regulate FGF21 expression via miR-577. NS5ATP6 regulates the intracellular triglyceride level via FGF21, and independently of SIRT1 and SREBP1. PMID: 27179781
  54. Study provides Class III evidence that elevated S-FGF21 accurately distinguishes patients with mitochondrial myopathies from patients with other conditions, and FGF21 and GDF15 mitochondrial myopathy from other myopathies. PMID: 27794108
  55. FGF21-PXR signaling pathway may be involved in decreased hepatic CYP3A4 metabolic activity in Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID: 27482056
  56. data show that AHR contributes to hepatic energy homeostasis, partly through the regulation of FGF21 expression and signaling. PMID: 27226639
  57. Chronic stimulation of PPARalpha may suppress the autophagy capacity in the liver as a result of reduced content of a number of autophagy-associated proteins independent of FGF21. PMID: 28422956
  58. Study compared the diagnostic utility of GDF-15 with FGF-21 in an adult mitochondrial disease cohort. GDF-15 outperforms FGF-21 as an indicator of mitochondrial diseases. GDF-15 is generally indicative of inherited mitochondrial disease regardless of clinical phenotype, whereas FGF-21 seems to be more indicative of mitochondrial disease when muscle manifestations are present PMID: 27164684
  59. The results suggest that increased circulating CK-18 and FGF-21 are associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and may be used for initial assessment, but not enough PMID: 28326329
  60. Plasma FGF21 concentrations are increased in prediabetic first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and that there is a significant association between FGF21 and obesity and insulin sensitivity. PMID: 26884286
  61. This review will give a comprehensive understanding of the underlying role of FGF21 and its possible interaction with other molecules in Diabetic nephropathy PMID: 26915669
  62. FGF21 is a novel surrogate diagnostic biomarker in initial stages of T2 Diabetic retinopathy (particularly with FGF21 values above 135.5pg/mL). PMID: 27106505
  63. Accumulation of adipose tissue in the RS is related with the visceral adipose amount, KIM-1 and FGF-21 concentration increase in the blood serum. PMID: 28005535
  64. The results showed that the FGF21 promoter contains three response elements for ATF4, suggesting that FGF21 is a sensitive target of ATF4. PMID: 27010621
  65. Serum FGF21 level was highest in obese children with the highest insulin resistance or abnormal glucose tolerance. PMID: 25929297
  66. The association observed between cord blood FGF21 and postnatal BMI may suggest a potential role during intrauterine life that may influence future metabolic imbalance. PMID: 25604041
  67. Data suggest that, in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, plasma FGF21 levels are up-regulated as compared to control subjects; elevated FGF21 levels are significantly decreased with treatment (here, treatment with metformin). This case-control study was conducted in China. PMID: 26950284
  68. Results provide evidence that leptin regulates FGF21 expression. PMID: 26982498
  69. FGF-21 might involve in the development and maintenance of atrial fibrosis in atrial fibrillation with rheumatic heart disease, and FGF-21 could be used as a novel biomarker to evaluate myocardial fibrosis in the future. PMID: 26823820
  70. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine. PMID: 26329882
  71. the hepatokine IGFBP1 is a critical liver-bone hormonal relay that promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption as well as an essential mediator of FGF21-induced bone loss PMID: 26456333
  72. This study identified fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as the enzyme that cleaves and inactivates human FGF21. PMID: 26797127
  73. Human FGF-21 Is a Substrate of Fibroblast Activation Protein. PMID: 26962859
  74. GDF-15 and FGF-21 are elevated in mitochondrial diseases PMID: 26867126
  75. Among cardiac patients, FGF21 had a negative association with MPV, whereas FGF23 had a positive association. PMID: 25781694
  76. FGF21 has a role in microvascular disease PMID: 26055067
  77. Levels of FGF21 are not different in patients with and without LDLR mutations, which suggests that decreased LDLR expression does not have a negative effect on FGF21 levels. PMID: 26068142
  78. Serum FGF21 was significantly increased in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. PMID: 25722462
  79. FGF21 may play an important role in short-term metabolic homoeostasis PMID: 25659979
  80. FGF21 mediates alcohol-induced adipose tissue lipolysis by activation of systemic release of catecholamin PMID: 26092866
  81. level of serum FGF21 is independently associated with the presence of AMI in Chinese patients. High FGF21 levels might be related to the incidence of re-infarction within 30 days after onset. PMID: 26091256
  82. FGF21 levels in humans are related to BAT activity, suggesting that FGF21 may represent a novel mechanism via which BAT activity in humans may be enhanced. PMID: 25985218
  83. FGF21 and GCsglucocorticoids regulate each other's production in a feed-forward loop. PMID: 25495872
  84. Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency elicited a compensatory response in skeletal muscle by increasing the FGF21 expression levels in muscle PMID: 25843656
  85. This review discusses the functions of FGF21 in the high-fat-diet response, the relationship between exercise and the expression of FGF21, the interaction between FGF21 and some important hormone, the potential of FGF21 pharmacology in human--{REVIEW} PMID: 25675147
  86. FGF-21 may be an important determinant of trabecular skeletal homeostasis in anorexia nervosa PMID: 25868802
  87. Serum FGF21 is elevated in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and positively correlates with carotid and iliac lesions in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis, especially in women. PMID: 26047614
  88. Fgf21 acts as an antioxidant factor in the heart, preventing induction of pro-oxidative pathways by inflammatory or hypertrophic conditions. PMID: 25538153
  89. Serum FGF21 levels independently links lower extremity atherosclerosis in Chinese women with type 2 diabetes. PMID: 25850006
  90. data demonstrate that acute co-treatment of hASC-adipocytes with FGF21 and insulin can result in a synergistic improvement in glucose uptake PMID: 25365322
  91. These data establish FGF21 as a fasting-induced hormone in humans and indicate that FGF21 contributes to the late stages of adaptive starvation, when it may regulate the utilization of fuel derived from tissue breakdown. PMID: 26529252
  92. Serum FGF21 levels were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism and declined after thionamide treatment. PMID: 26241324
  93. Data suggest expression of FGF21 in liver can be regulated by dietary factors; curcumin (antioxidant dietary supplement) up-regulates FGF21 in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) and in mouse liver (to prevent prediabetic state induced by dexamethasone). PMID: 26338887
  94. Critical illness is a potent inducer of serum FGF21 and of liver fgf21 expression, possibly driven at least in part by mitochondrial damage and the ISR, which were all attenuated by targeting normoglycemia. PMID: 26274346
  95. Serum FGF21 level during gestation positively correlated with leptin, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol; FGF21 may act as a glucose and lipid metabolism compensatory regulatory factor to improve glucose and lipid metabolism during the period of pregnancy PMID: 24895044
  96. serum FGF-21 levels are elevated in atrial fibrillation patients. PMID: 25766411
  97. Individuals with type 1 diabetes showed significantly lower basal FGF-21 concentration when compared with healthy controls and had significantly different postprandial change of FGF-21 in comparison with healthy controls PMID: 25194937
  98. circulating FGF-21 may differ in its association with bone, lean mass and insulin resistance depending on sex and weight status PMID: 25039824
  99. Data (including data from hamster studies using continuous subcutaneous infusion of recombinant FGF21) suggest FGF21 exerts metabolic effects in liver by modulating nutrient flux/energy metabolism via both carbohydrate metabolism and fat metabolism. PMID: 26294388
  100. Fibroblast growth factor-21 concentration in serum and synovial fluid is associated with bone loss of knee osteoarthritis patients. PMID: 25549692

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Heparin-binding growth factors family
Database Links

HGNC: 3678

OMIM: 609436

KEGG: hsa:26291

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000222157

UniGene: Hs.283015

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