B2M Antibody

Code CSB-PA002486YA01HU
Size US$299Purchase it in Cusabio online store
(only available for customers from the US)
  • Western blot
    All lanes: B2M antibody at 2µg/ml
    Lane 1: A431 whole cell lysate
    Lane 2: Mouse lung tissue
    Goat polyclonal to rabbit IgG at 1/10000 dilution
    Predicted band size: 14 kDa
    Observed band size: 14 kDa

  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human prostate cancer using CSB-PA002486YA01HU at dilution of 1:100

  • Immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded human lung cancer using CSB-PA002486YA01HU at dilution of 1:100

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Product Details

Full Product Name Rabbit anti-Homo sapiens (Human) B2M Polyclonal antibody
Uniprot No. P61769
Target Names B2M
Alternative Names B2M antibody; B2MG_HUMAN antibody; Beta 2 microglobin antibody; Beta 2 microglobulin antibody; Beta 2 microglobulin precursor antibody; Beta chain of mhc class 1 proteins antibody; Beta chain of MHC class I molecules antibody; Beta-2-microglobulin form pI 5.3 antibody; CDABP0092 antibody; Hdcma22p antibody; IMD43 antibody
Raised in Rabbit
Species Reactivity Human, Mouse
Immunogen Recombinant Human Beta-2-microglobulin protein (21-119AA)
Immunogen Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Conjugate Non-conjugated
Clonality Polyclonal
Isotype IgG
Purification Method >95%, Protein G purified
Concentration It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
Buffer Preservative: 0.03% Proclin 300
Constituents: 50% Glycerol, 0.01M PBS, PH 7.4
Form Liquid
Tested Applications ELISA, WB, IHC
Recommended Dilution
Application Recommended Dilution
WB 1:1000-1:5000
IHC 1:20-1:200
Protocols ELISA Protocol
Western Blotting(WB) Protocol
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Protocol
Troubleshooting and FAQs Antibody FAQs
Storage Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time maybe differs from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.

Target Data

Function Component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. Exogenously applied M.tuberculosis EsxA or EsxA-EsxB (or EsxA expressed in host) binds B2M and decreases its export to the cell surface (total protein levels do not change), probably leading to defects in class I antigen presentation
Gene References into Functions
  1. Data show that plasma beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) levels are specifically increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating that beta2m could play a role in AD. PMID: 29741401
  2. Binding stability to beta2-microglobulin may confer to HLA-C the ability to preferentially act either as a conventional immune-competent molecule or as an accessory molecule involved in HIV-1 infectivity via viral envelope glycoprotein binding. PMID: 28051183
  3. Molecular dynamic simulations reveal that D59P mutation in the DE loop region of B2M disrupts the native sandwich folded structure and highlight a decrease in the average number of hydrogen bonds in the loop regions on D59P mutation that enhances conformational flexibility, which lead to higher aggregation propensity. PMID: 28657666
  4. Study characterized the salt-induced oligomers of the acid-unfolded state of beta2m using an array of biophysical tools including steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy imaging. Results revealed the distinct pathways by which beta2m assembles into oligomers and fibrils. PMID: 27467899
  5. We focused on the genetic and functional analysis of beta2-microglobulin (B2M), a component of the HLA class-I complex. We identified alterations in genes involved in various functions, such as B2M involved in immunosurveillance PMID: 28302866
  6. Pretransplant beta2-Microglobulin Is Associated with the Risk of Acute Graft-versus-Host-Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.( PMID: 27044906
  7. we found that beta2M but no other serum markers had independent prognostic significance in the UK CLL4 trial PMID: 26732125
  8. Both cystatin C and beta 2 macroglobulin are elevated in type 2 diabetics with diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 28182344
  9. Serum B2M level was positively associated with Gensini score system, SYNTAX score system and the number of diseased coronary vessels. PMID: 28249620
  10. Data suggest that T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha-constant domain (C- and F-strands) directly interacts with unbound MHC light chain, beta2-microglobulin (beta2M); these interactions do not appear to be involved in T-cell cytotoxicity, suggesting an alternate role for beta2M binding to TCR; TCR beta-chain does not appear to interact directly with beta2M. PMID: 28671821
  11. These data suggest beta2M might participate in the development of lung emphysema through induction of lung epithelial cell senescence and inhibition. PMID: 28213472
  12. Heparin-induced amyloid fibrillation of beta2 -microglobulin explained by solubility and a supersaturation-dependent conformational phase diagram PMID: 28249361
  13. results suggest that doxycycline and rifamycin are general inhibitors of Cu(II)-induced beta2m amyloid formation. PMID: 28468825
  14. High B2M levels were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in this study of middle-aged women PMID: 28490653
  15. Letter: serum levels of anti-carbonic anhydrase autoantibodies and beta macroglobulin correlate with ClinESSDAI score in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. PMID: 28079504
  16. Macromolecular crowding favors the fibrillization of beta2-microglobulin by accelerating the nucleation step and inhibiting fibril disassembly. PMID: 27481166
  17. Beta2M mRNA expression in cells of the urinary sediment is higher in T1D patients with diabetic kidney disease and in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in comparison to healthy subjects, maybe reflecting a tubulointerstitial injury promoted by albumin. PMID: 27173460
  18. Serum levels of beta trace protein and beta 2 microglobulin can be used to predict residual kidney function in hemodialysis patients. PMID: 26924065
  19. Results show that high serum 2-m levels and lymphoma associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (LAHS) were associated with markedly poorer overall survival (OS) in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis suggesting that serum2-m concentration was a powerful and independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with LAHS. PMID: 27110054
  20. The chaperone crystallin, which is a mild modulator of the lag phase of the variant fibrillogenesis, potently inhibits fibril elongation of the wild-type even once it is absorbed on D76N beta2-microglobulin fibrils. PMID: 26921323
  21. B2M is a potential tissue biomarker and therapeutic target of borderline and malignant ovarian tumours and the dysregulation of B2M in these tumours may be mediated by the TGF-beta signaling pathway. PMID: 26983758
  22. BTP and B2M levels are less affected than serum by amputation, and should be considered for future study of GFR estimation PMID: 26800100
  23. Overexpression of B2M are associated with invasion, metastasis of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID: 26406402
  24. Serum Beta-2 Microglobulin level is elevated in Chronic Hepatitis C related chronic liver diseases and may be used as a marker for Chronic Hepatitis C disease progression towards cirrhosis and carcinoma. PMID: 26625805
  25. Data suggest that, in modeling early assembly mechanisms for amyloidogenic beta2-microglobulin (B2M and/or truncated B2M, crosslinked and native), domain-swapped hinge region of B2M is key to both intra-molecular and inter-molecular interactions. PMID: 26655720
  26. The results show that, although other factors influence the fibril growth kinetics, a striking difference in the solubility of the proteins is a key determinant of the different amyloidogenicity of human B2M and mouse B2M. PMID: 26780548
  27. beta2M-mediated VEGFR-2/Akt/mTOR phosphorylation and tumor angiogenesis was significantly suppressed by over-expression of DKK-3. PMID: 26278164
  28. ESAT-6/ESAT-6:CFP-10 can enter into the endoplasmic reticulum where it sequesters beta2M to inhibit cell surface expression of MHC-I-beta2M complexes, resulting in downregulation of class I-mediated antigen presentation. PMID: 25356553
  29. The study presents the X-ray crystallographic structures of three families of oligomers formed by macrocyclic peptides containing a heptapeptide sequence derived from the amyloidogenic E chain of beta 2-microglobulin (B2M). PMID: 25915729
  30. Serum cystatin C, urine NAG, RBP, and ET-1 levels were found to be insufficient for the evaluation of SCD nephropathy. Increased B2M/creatinie levels can be valuable in estimating possible glomerular and tubular damage in SCD. PMID: 23987825
  31. Unfolding of the C-terminal portion of human beta 2 microglobulin may be related to amyloidogenicity. PMID: 25523495
  32. The results suggest that the interaction between beta2m fibrils and membranes of endosomal origin may play a role in the molecular mechanism of beta2m amyloid-associated osteoarticular tissue destruction in DRA. PMID: 25100247
  33. Monoclonal antibodies to HLA-E bind epitopes carried by unfolded beta2 m-free heavy chains. PMID: 25982269
  34. Beta2-Microglobulin deficiency causes a complex immunodeficiency of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID: 25702838
  35. A competitive mechanism of amyloid fibrillation and amorphous aggregation reproduced the observed aggregation kinetics of beta2-microglobulin. PMID: 26063798
  36. Conformational differences between B2M and its truncated variant DeltaN6 fibrils can explain the relatively enhanced amyloidogenic potential of the truncation variant. PMID: 24679070
  37. findings suggest that beta2m at transplantation predict the outcome after ASCT in NHL PMID: 25577449
  38. The expression profiles of DEP1 and B2MG correlate with increased cell senescence and survival in breast cancer. PMID: 25412306
  39. Beta 2-microglobulin is responsible for systemic amyloidosis in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. PMID: 25750126
  40. beta2-M expression demonstrated a significant difference in the four breast cancer molecular subtypes, and may be related to apoptosis regulation in breast cancer. PMID: 25292288
  41. Serum B2-M levels may be used as an activity parameter in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID: 25152594
  42. Urinary beta2-MG levels showed a significant correlation with renal function and proteinuria in IgA nephropathy. PMID: 24851068
  43. results suggest that serum beta2M and GGT levels are useful indicators for evaluating the occurrence of slight inflammation as background, which promotes atherosclerosis even in healthy children. PMID: 24572983
  44. Beta-2 microglobulin levels are increased in about 30 percent of renal cell carcinoma patients, above all in subjects with metastatic disease. PMID: 24692843
  45. Substantial changes of CSF beta 2-m concentrations are predictive of purulent meningitis, leptomeningeal metastasis, viral meningitis/encephalitis, and neuroborreliosis. PMID: 24895473
  46. Serum beta2-microglobulin levels correlate with tumor stage in MM. PMID: 25247952
  47. The increased proportion of advanced glycation end products and beta2M deposition induced by long-term exposure of peritoneal dialysis fluid may be a marker of peritoneal injury. PMID: 24337623
  48. Amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic variants of beta2-microglobulin, mapping interactions that inhibit or promote fibril formation in atomic detail. PMID: 24981172
  49. MHC I and b2m genes are both expressed in in human as well as mice during the developmental stages of cerebellar cortex PMID: 24272393
  50. An association between serum B2M and non-Hodgkin lymphoma prognosis. PMID: 24969158
  51. Hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia show higher plasma concentrations of beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), compared to patients without uric acid metabolic disorders. PMID: 25095655
  52. Milk beta2-microglobulin and S100A9 are host factors that are found to be associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. PMID: 24144106
  53. beta(2)microglobulin displays an antibacterial activity when amniotic cells are exposed to pathogens. PMID: 23144825
  54. with beta2-microglobulin, a protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, we show direct heat measurements of the formation of amyloid fibrils using isothermal titration calorimetry PMID: 24753579
  55. beta2m at pH 2.5 adopts a compact noncanonical unfolded state resembling a collapsed premolten globule state PMID: 23974249
  56. study used nanobody-assisted Xray crystallography to solve the structure of Pro32Gly beta2m (P32G beta2m); complex of P32G beta2m with Nb24 reveals a trans peptide bond at position 32; Pro32 adopts the cis conformation in wild-type monomer, indicating that the cis to trans isomerization at Pro32 plays a critical role in the early onset of beta2m amyloid formation PMID: 23904325
  57. study used molecular dynamics simulations to explore the impact of selected DE-loop mutations (D59P and W60C) on the folding space of protein beta2-microglobulin; they predict the population of a partially folded state, with 60 percent of native internal free energy PMID: 23975166
  58. Results indicate that age, male gender, and C-reactive protein level were positively associated with serum beta2-microglobulin levels. PMID: 23991042
  59. Lipo-prostaglandin E1 reudces cystatin C, beta2-microglobulin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with decompensated heart failure and renal dysfunction. PMID: 23000961
  60. Class I major histocompatibility complex, the trojan horse for secretion of amyloidogenic beta2-microglobulin. PMID: 24338476
  61. Both the cis-trans equilibrium and isomerization dynamics of a single proline amide modulate beta2-microglobulin amyloid assembly. PMID: 24262149
  62. Pathological self-aggregation of beta(2)-microglobulin PMID: 23225003
  63. An activated complement system and cellular activation perpetuate these reactions which due to the affinity of beta(2)m-amyloid for the collagen of synovial surfaces result in the DRA syndrome. PMID: 23225015
  64. In primary Sjogren's syndrome higher levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with increased systemic disease activity. PMID: 23717383
  65. haptoglobin is a potential extracellular chaperone for beta2-microglobulin even in moderately acidic conditions relevant during inflammation, with promising therapeutic implications in beta2-microglobulin amyloid-related diseases. PMID: 24078632
  66. case Report: beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis as cause of pathologic hip fracture in hemodialysis patient. PMID: 23728017
  67. DC-SIGNR has a role in expression of lactic acid dehydrogenase and beta2-microglobulin in non-Hodgkin lymphoma PMID: 23859015
  68. Structure, folding dynamics, and amyloidogenesis of D76N beta2-microglobulin: roles of shear flow, hydrophobic surfaces, and alpha-crystallin. PMID: 24014031
  69. Higher circulating levels of beta2-m or cystatin C are independent cardiovascular risk factors of left atrial enlargement in patients with coronary artery disease, and could be a link between the kidney and the heart. PMID: 23849305
  70. Data suggest that IgG monoclonal antibodies that target beta-2-microglobulin for cancer immunotherapy be selected or engineered so as not to activate complement, thus eliminating the potential adverse effects of complement-mediated lysis of normal cells. PMID: 23911412
  71. Salivary beta2MG and Na+ levels are useful markers for differentiating Sjogren's syndrome patients from non-SS-CTD patients and health controls. PMID: 23806216
  72. betaTP, beta2M, CysC, and creatinine differ in their associations with demographic and clinical factors, suggesting variation in their non-glomular filtration rate determinants. PMID: 23335043
  73. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of the serum tumor marker beta-2 microglobulin (beta2M) as well as positron emission tomography using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose in confirming or eliminating the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID: 23898101
  74. Serum beta2M may be a useful biomarker for clinical diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of prostate cancer. PMID: 23707648
  75. These experimental data suggest that partial unfolding in the apical half of the protein close to Pro32 leads to an excited state conformation with enhanced propensity for oligomerization. PMID: 23648836
  76. beta2-microglobulin is a novel filtration marker for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID: 23518194
  77. Alpha B-crystallin reversibly dissociates beta2microglobulin oligomers formed spontaneously in aged samples. PMID: 23645685
  78. An elevated U-beta2MG level was associated with the occurrence of cardiac events in ST elevation myocardial infarction patients who underwent angioplasty. PMID: 23123554
  79. Serum beta2MG in combination with serum Cr used as markers for predicting glomerular function can provide an accurate detection of kidney dysfunction in children. PMID: 22797889
  80. The identification of the two novel loci for B2M extends our understanding of its metabolism and informs its use as a kidney filtration biomarker. PMID: 23417110
  81. Confirm the strong relationship between B2M levels and eGFR and confirm the power of B2M to predict overall and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events in patients at different stages of CKD. PMID: 22895515
  82. Prediction formulae based upon serum beta2-microglogulin/TATI may more reliably estimate glomerular filtration rate in heavy proteinuria. PMID: 22307441
  83. High beta-2 microglobulin expression is associated with multiple myeloma. PMID: 23242610
  84. Data indicate that fibrils formed by co-polymerizing two variants of beta2-microglobulin and their homopolymer equivalents have different structural and thermodynamic properties. PMID: 23329840
  85. Using human beta(2)m and the HLA-B*27:09 complex as a model system, a comparison of free and HC-bound beta(2)m by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was initially carried out. Most parts of beta(2)m gain rigidity upon binding to the heavy chain. PMID: 23229474
  86. NGAL and beta2-M were significantly increased in urine from patients with obstructed hydronephrotic kidneys at the time of surgery. PMID: 22710694
  87. Review emphasizes common but also distinct molecular mechanisms of beta2m loss in melanoma and colorectal tumors. PMID: 22833104
  88. Results support that beta2MG may serve as a marker of disease activity in SLE. The correlations with the measured cytokines indicate that increased beta2MG in SLE reflects immunological activity. PMID: 22577117
  89. The analysis of the transverse relaxation rates revealed that acid-denatured beta2m undergoes a structural exchange with an extensively unfolded form. PMID: 22683352
  90. Absence of B2M protein expression identifies MMR-deficient cancers with a favourable clinical course and absence of metastatic disease. PMID: 22859396
  91. Report prognostic value of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. PMID: 22595828
  92. Data indicate that in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels increased with age than in normal individuals, and the levels correlated with plasma beta(2)-microglobulin and with one another. PMID: 22475215
  93. The free energy barriers for the normal-to-amyloidogenic isomerization are found to be 14.9 and 7.1 kcal/mol for the neutral and protonated cases, consistent with enhanced amyloidgenesis at low pH. PMID: 22793795
  94. Significant positive correlations between PDGF-AB & b-FGF, IL-6, ANG, & beta2 microglobulin in multiple myeloma. A complex network of cytokines induces bone marrow neovascularization in MM. PMID: 21919032
  95. High serum beta2-M is a novel predictor of prognosis in patients with upper aerodigestive tract natural killer NK/T-cell lymphoma. PMID: 22373550
  96. In combination with ultrasonication on nucleation, beta(2)-microglobulin, a protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, generates distinct fibril conformations in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. PMID: 22566695
  97. findings show that HLA-E/beta2m overexpression is a surrogate marker of poor prognosis and point to a novel mechanism of tumor immune escape in CRC in restraining inhibitory IEL-TIL PMID: 21953582
  98. Comparison of unpaired 50 primary breast cancer and 33 brain metastases showed lower expression of beta2-microglobulin, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) 1, TAP2 and calnexin in the brain lesions. PMID: 22065046
  99. HLA class I down-regulation might be a common characteristic of breast cancer mostly caused by the down-regulation of beta2-microglobulin expression. PMID: 22524657
  100. We describe a kindred with slowly progressive gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic neuropathy caused by autosomal dominant, hereditary systemic amyloidosis. The amyloid consists of Asp76Asn variant beta(2)-microglobulin. PMID: 22693999

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Involvement in disease Immunodeficiency 43 (IMD43); Amyloidosis 8 (AMYL8)
Subcellular Location Secreted, Cell surface, Note=Detected in serum and urine (PubMed:1336137, PubMed:7554280), SUBCELLULAR LOCATION:
Protein Families Beta-2-microglobulin family
Database Links

HGNC: 914

OMIM: 105200

KEGG: hsa:567

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000452780

UniGene: Hs.534255

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