Recombinant Rat Prolactin protein(Prl) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP000081RA
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Product Details

Purity >98% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by a cell proliferation assay using rat Nb2-11 cells is less than 1.0 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >1.0x106 IU/mg.
Target Names Prl
Uniprot No. P01237
Research Area Signal Transduction
Alternative Names Prl; Prolactin; PRL
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Source E.Coli
Expression Region 30-226aa
Complete Sequence LPVCSGGDCQ TPLPELFDRV VMLSHYIHTL YTDMFIEFDK QYVQDREFIA KAINDCPTSS LATPEDKEQA QKVPPEVLLN LILSLVHSWN DPLFQLITGL GGIHEAPDAI ISRAKEIEEQ NKRLLEGIEK IISQAYPEAK GNEIYLVWSQ LPSLQGVDEE SKDLAFYNNI RCLRRDSHKV DNYLKFLRCQ IVHKNNC
Mol. Weight 22.6 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

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Target Data

Function Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.
Gene References into Functions
  1. It was examined whether prolactin modulation alters ventral prostate (VP) morphophysiology in adult castrated rats. PMID: 28988314
  2. Data suggest that prolactin and oleic acid synergistically stimulate beta-cell proliferation and islet growth; in cultured neonatal islets, prolactin increases cell proliferation 6-fold, oleic acid 3.5-fold, and their combination 15-fold. Similar results were observed in cultured adult islets. PMID: 28686504
  3. Involvement of prolactin in the regulation of bicarbonate biodynamics using female rat model of cholestasis of pregnancy. PMID: 28361424
  4. This study reports on the effect of copulation on potentially precancerous prostate lesions, serum testosterone and prolactin levels in rats. PMID: 27356573
  5. This study demonstrated that the Cultured neurons expressed mRNA for both PRL and its receptor (PRLR), and both PRL and PRLR expression levels changed after the excitotoxic insult. PMID: 26874070
  6. Data confirm that prolactin secretion by anterior pituitary gland can be down-regulated by environmental endocrine disruptors; here, perfluorooctane sulfonate affects periventricular-hypophysial dopaminergic neurons in mechanism involving estradiol. PMID: 26032630
  7. In conclusion, PRL was responsible for the lactation-induced mucosal adaptations, which were associated with compensatory increase in FGF-23 expression probably to prevent calcium hyperabsorption. PMID: 26657069
  8. PRL is unchanged in a rat model of panic evoked by dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation. PMID: 25618592
  9. Prolactin actively supports lactation providing amino acids to the gland through SNAT2 for the synthesis of milk proteins. PMID: 25701231
  10. Results showed that an active sexual life, with constant execution of sexual behavior, produces a sustained increase in serum PRL, prostate PRL receptors, and the pStat3 signaling pathway PMID: 25446202
  11. This study showe that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha antagonize the effect of each other on the expression and release of prolactin in a cell line and in obese and diabetic rats. PMID: 25715833
  12. supraphysiological levels of PRL affect carcinogenesis. PL induces regression of the tumors due to the differentiation produced on the mammary cells. PMID: 25136563
  13. Prolactin induces apoptosis of lactotropes PMID: 24859278
  14. High Prolactin expression is associated with Streptozotocin diabetes. PMID: 24984282
  15. insulin activates prolactin gene transcription by activating Elk-1 that recruits the NuA4 complex to the promoter. PMID: 24075908
  16. PRL acts on ARC neurons to inhibit kisspeptin expression in female rats PMID: 24456164
  17. serum levels may be involved in the homing events to mammary glands, probably helping antibody-secreting cells and protecting the gland during lactation development PMID: 23904563
  18. Prolactin inhibits apoptosis in chondrocytes in response to a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID: 23908112
  19. Our data confirmed the regulatory role of dopamine, serotonin, and TRH on PRL secretion, however, the interaction between these and glutamatergic systems was not confirmed. PMID: 23641787
  20. Data from 2 hepatic insufficiency models suggest that pituitary expression of Prl and estrogen receptor alpha is up-regulated in this state, positively correlating with increase in serum 17beta-estradiol level; data show gastro-hepato-pituitary axis. PMID: 22843122
  21. The results indicate that under prolonged duration of a daily melatonin signal, rat anterior pituitary prolactin synthesis and release are depressed, together with significant changes in the redox and circadian mechanisms controlling them. PMID: 22891630
  22. results show that the effect of centrally injected allopreganolone over reproductive function could be due to a centrally originated LH mediated effect over ovarian function that affects luteal regression, through the inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of progesterone and prolactin release PMID: 22674474
  23. Lactotroph nonselective cation channels, presumably belonging to the TRPC family, contribute to the background depolarizing conductance and firing of action potentials with consequent prolactin release. PMID: 22480423
  24. Data suggest that the resolution of an inflammatory response is associated with dramatic activation of the prolactin (PRL) gene promoter in the myeloid lineage. PMID: 22495675
  25. E(2) may act as a modulator of the prolactin secretory response induced by TRH through membrane estrogen receptors, with the contribution by PI3K/Akt pathway activation. PMID: 22354782
  26. The results show that PRL expression and cell proliferation are controlled in part by CEBPD. PMID: 21980073
  27. Gonadotrophs are the major source of Nrg1 in the normal anterior pituitary and Nrg1 may function as a paracrine/juxtacrine regulator of PRL secretion. PMID: 21919974
  28. Data suggest that prolactin is involved in regulation of prolactin receptor expression and maintenance of physiological cell renewal in anterior pituitary. PMID: 22094470
  29. Data suggest that inflammation leads to accumulation of endogenous prolactin in female and male rats, and that prolactin acts as an inflammatory mediator at different time points for female and intact male rats. PMID: 21777304
  30. Prolactin inhibition during late lactation programs renal function damage in adult offspring. PMID: 21823059
  31. Estradiol regulates dopamine-activataed GIRK channel activity in pituitary lactotrophs, regulating prolactin release during the estrous cycle. PMID: 21653876
  32. Integrity of the pelvic nerve is necessary for the systemic oxytocin induction of the PRL secretory rhythm in ovariectomized rats. PMID: 21677274
  33. NONO and SFPQ were functionally involved in circadian Prl transcription since overexpression of both proteins greatly reduced Prl promoter activity (P<0.001) and disrupted its circadian pattern. PMID: 21507896
  34. The anterior pituitary production of 16 kDa prolactin is variable along the estrous cycle and increased by estrogens. PMID: 21760910
  35. Complex interactions between Ahr and Esr alter Prl and luteinizing hormone (LH) synthesis by direct actions in lactotropes and gonadotropes. PMID: 21187122
  36. Results suggest that bone morphogenetic proteins elicit differential actions in the regulation of prolactin release dependent on cellular cAMP-PKA activity. PMID: 20970474
  37. PREB can function as a transcriptional regulator of PRL promoter activity and might be involved in TRH-induced PRL gene transcription PMID: 20960102
  38. Results suggest a role for dopamine in the generation of the oestrous prolactin surge. PMID: 20722974
  39. Prolactin diminishes the damaging actions of excitotoxicity in the kainate model of epilepsy. PMID: 20570717
  40. Data show that inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase in hypothalamic neuroendocrine dopamine neurons is required for suckling-induced prolactin and ACTH responses. PMID: 20170714
  41. Results demonstrate clearly that certain circadian elements binding to the E-box133 site are required for episodes of PRL mRNA expression. PMID: 20215567
  42. Prolactin gene expression data suggest that pituitary tissue comprises a series of cell ensembles, which individually display a variety of patterns of short-term stochastic behaviour, but together yield long-range and long-term coordinated behaviour. PMID: 20130141
  43. results indicate that specific effects upon male rat lactotropes may be exerted by PRL variants released from anterior pituitary glands of lactating and non-lactating rats PMID: 19590175
  44. At 5 h after progesterone (P(4)) treatment, tyrosine hydroxylase activity and phosphorylation state declined coincident with an increase in plasma prolactin in both P(4)-treated morning and afternoon groups. PMID: 19945993
  45. PRL directly enhanced the transcellular and paracellular calcium transport in the rat cecum through the nongenomic signaling pathways involving PI3K, PKC, and ROCK. PMID: 19449156
  46. Review: evidence demonstrating PRL synthesis by different subtypes of immune cells from humans, mice and rats, describe the regulation of PRL gene expression in human lymphocytes, and discuss the functions of PRL made by immune cells. PMID: 11721692
  47. Review: Effects of prolactin on signal transduction and gene expression: possible relevance for systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID: 11721698
  48. Review: effects of changing the ratio of these two forms in maternal PRL on gamma delta T cell development in rat pups in utero PMID: 11721700
  49. physiological prolactin secretion response to stress depends on the renin--angiotensin system PMID: 11888852
  50. Inverse control of prolactin and growth hormone gene expression: effect of thyroliberin on transcription and RNA stabilization. PMID: 11892801

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Somatotropin/prolactin family
Database Links

KEGG: rno:24683

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000023412

UniGene: Rn.9759

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