Hormone is a kind of chemical information substance which is produced by highly differentiated endocrine cells and directly secreted into blood. It can influence physiological activity by regulating the metabolic activity of cells and maintain homeostasis in various tissues. It is also a class of signaling molecules that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.
According to its chemical nature, hormones can be divided into two groups, including nitrogen-containing protein hormones (derived from amino acids, peptides, proteins) and steroid hormones. And in terms of their physiological functions, they can be divided into three categories: first is to regulate the body's metabolism and maintain a relatively stable internal environment, such as insulin, gastrointestinal hormones, parathyroid hormones, etc.; second is to promote cell proliferation and differentiation, control the body's growth and development, and affect its aging process, such as growth hormone and sex hormones; third is a kind of coordination with the nervous system to enhance the body's adaptation to the environment, such as adrenal cortex hormones and pituitary hormones.
Additionally, there are three main ways of hormonal transmission: most hormones enter the blood directly after secretion, and only play a certain role in the target cells which have substances with special stereo-configuration (hormone receptors). The body binds to the corresponding hormone and recognizes the information carried by the hormone, transforming it into a series of complex chemical reactions in the cell, thereby producing specific physiological effects. Hormones in this way must reach the target cells with blood flow, so they are called "distant secretion."
Some hormones are secreted and spread through the interstitial fluid, acting on neighboring cells (such as certain digestive tract hormones). This method is called "paracrine." There are also some hormones secreted by nerve cells (such as the thalamus), called "neurokines", which flow along the axons through the axoplasm to reach the target cells. This is called "neurosecretion."
CUSABIO provides several excellent hormone products. All of them have been sold with high-quality and good biological activities. The purity of most active proteins are higher than 97%, and all of which have been validated activity and low endotoxin, stored in freeze-dried powder form for best stability, majority tag-free thus closer to native protein. Here, we numerate several pictures of hot hormones.
Here, we introduce the function of CUSABIO hormones as examples:
Prolactin, also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk. It primarily acts on the mammary gland by promoting lactation. In humans, prolactin is produced at least in the anterior pituitary, decidua, myometrium, breast, lymphocytes, leukocytes and prostate. Pituitary PRL is controlled by the Pit-1 transcription factor that binds to the prolactin gene at several sites. Ultimately dopamine, extrapituitary PRL is controlled by a superdistal promoter and apparently unaffected by dopamine.
Leptin is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. It is a key player in the regulation of energy balance and body weight control. In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, activates by depolarization POMC neurons inducing FOS and SOCS3 expression to release anorexigenic peptides and inhibits by hyperpolarization NPY neurons inducing SOCS3 with a consequent reduction on release of orexigenic peptides.
Parathyroid hormone, also abbreviated as PTH, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time. IT elevates calcium level by dissolving the salts in bone and preventing their renal excretion and stimulates [1-14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblastic cells.
Somatotropin, also known as pituitary growth hormone or simply as growth hormone (GH1), is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin family of hormones that play an important role in growth control. Its major role in stimulating body growth is to stimulate the liver and other tissues to secrete IGF-1. It stimulates both the differentiation and proliferation of myoblasts. Additionally, it also stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in muscle and other tissues.