Recombinant Human Interleukin-15 protein(IL15) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP001621HU
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Product Details

Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by a cell proliferation assay using murine CTLL-2 cells is less than 0.5 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >2.0x106 IU/mg.
Target Names IL15
Uniprot No. P40933
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names IL 15; IL-15; IL15; IL15_HUMAN; Interleukin 15; Interleukin-15; Interleukin15; MGC9721
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 49-162aa
Mol. Weight 12.9 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Stimulation by IL-15 requires interaction of IL-15 with components of IL-2R, including IL-2R beta and probably IL-2R gamma but not IL-2R alpha.
Gene References into Functions
  1. High IL15 expression is associated with follicles with immature oocytes. PMID: 29619608
  2. IL-15 plays a pivotal role in creating a self-renewing, persistent HIV reservoir by facilitating infection of CD4(+) T cells with stem cell-like properties. PMID: 30257946
  3. The genetic variations in IL15 affects the risk of developing of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and are associated with hyperdiploidy in Latvian population. PMID: 29528261
  4. circulating IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha concentrations are reduced in lean and obese physically active people PMID: 28940555
  5. IL-15/IL-15Ralpha signaling pathway is activated in skeletal muscle in response to a session of resistance exercise. PMID: 28449327
  6. Recipient IL-15 rs10519613 polymorphism was associated with hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation. PMID: 29162948
  7. This review provides significant characterization of specific systemic, cellular and molecular alterations caused by IL-15 superagonist treatment as compared to native IL-15 and compares their anti-tumor effectiveness in multiple preclinical studies [Review] PMID: 28888485
  8. iNKT cell development requires IL-15, and study found that sgammac interfered with IL-15 signaling to suppress iNKT cell generation in the thymus. Thus, sgammac represents a new mechanism to control cytokine availability during T cell development that constrains mature T cell production and specifically iNKT cell generation in the thymus. PMID: 27833166
  9. The rs10833 polymorphism could be involved in regulating IL-15 production in subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID: 28923712
  10. RFC, IL15 and VDR germline variants are associated with minimal residual disease in pediatric B-cell precursor ALL PMID: 27427275
  11. IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha genes in samples from the Spanish Consortium for Genetics of Celiac Disease (CEGEC) collection, identifying two regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that might be associated with celiac disease PMID: 28738233
  12. associated with increased loss of fat mass and body weight [review] PMID: 28752527
  13. These data support the combinatorial approach of in situ suppression of the PD-L inhibitory checkpoints with DC-mediated IL15 transpresentation to promote antigen-specific T-cell responses and, ultimately, contribute to graft-versus-tumor immunity PMID: 28637876
  14. These data suggest that TLR2 activation is involved in the induction of IL-15 production by primary Sjogren's syndrome salivary gland epithelial cells and promotes inflammation through NF-kappaB activation. PMID: 27260411
  15. this review will focus on IL-15 biology in NK cells and proposes the development novel therapies aimed at this pathway in humans PMID: 27835762
  16. IL-15 levels were found to be elevated in depressed patients with asthma. PMID: 26874516
  17. this paper show that IL-15 boosts the function and migration of human terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells by inducing a unique gene signature PMID: 26857736
  18. inhibits the Ca(2+)-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, mainly via the attenuation of Ca(2+)-stimulated PI3K-AKT signalling PMID: 26914593
  19. The 161533 TriKE induced superior NK cell cytotoxicity, degranulation, and cytokine production against CD33(+) HL-60 targets and increased NK survival and proliferation. PMID: 26847056
  20. In this article, we review the functions, expression, and regulation of IL-15 for designing an improved IL-15-based therapy targeting the IL-15 signaling pathway. PMID: 27325459
  21. n this study, authors compared the concentrations of IL-15 and IL-7 in the plasma of MDS patients (n = 20) compared with that in the plasma of healthy controls (n = 20). Results indicated that exposure to high levels of IL-15 may be involved in the T cell phenotype conversion observed in MDS. PMID: 27036031
  22. The presence of IL15 rs10833 AA genotype in HIV-/HCV-co-infected patients was associated with advanced liver fibrosis, inflammation-related biomarkers and increased rates of sustained virological response to pegIFN-alpha/RBV therapy. PMID: 26836972
  23. High IL15 expression is associated with endometriosis. PMID: 27190213
  24. IL-15 drives bystander activation of CD8+ T cells, which predicts disease progression in untreated HIV-1-infected patients and suggests that elevated IL-15 may also drive CD8+ T cell expansion that is linked to increased morbidity and mortality in treated patients PMID: 27322062
  25. Sustained virologic response was significantly associated with IL15 rs10833 in chronic hepatitis C patients, treated with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin. PMID: 28827115
  26. IL-15 mRNA and protein levels significantly increased in rhHBcAg stimulation group compared with non-stimulated group. PMID: 28274303
  27. this work provides evidence that the sushi-IL-15Ralpha/IL-15 fusion protein RLI enhances antitumor activity of anti-PD-1 treatment and is a promising approach to stimulate host immunity PMID: 27217584
  28. This analysis revealed highly connected functional interaction networks with two candidate genes, IL15 and SEC14L5 highly enriched in networks. Overall, from these results, we concluded that these genes can be recommended as some of the potential targets for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. PMID: 27997584
  29. These data support a potential role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated immune activation. PMID: 27880829
  30. 15Ralpha/15 complexes represent a potent adjuvant for augmenting the efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy. Such cell-bound or soluble 15Ralpha/15 complexes could be developed for use in combination immunotherapy approaches. PMID: 27227483
  31. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) pathogenesis remains unknown, and there are no curative therapies. Our findings not only demonstrate a critical role for IL15-mediated inflammation in cutaneous T-cell lymphomagenesis, but also uncover a new oncogenic regulatory loop in CTCL involving IL15, HDAC1, HDAC6, and miR-21 that shows differential sensitivity to isotype-specific HDAC inhibitors PMID: 27422033
  32. we provide the first direct evidence that IL-15 is expressed both at the mRNA and protein level in human salivary gland epithelial cells and it is clear that salivary glands from primary Sjogren's syndrome patients showed an intensified epithelial expression of IL-15 PMID: 27567226
  33. Data show a greater expression of interleukin 15 (IL-15) mRNA in healing wounds compared with non-healing wounds. PMID: 27460304
  34. Our study indicates that the IL15 +96522A/C polymorphism correlates with the severity of Hashimoto's disease (HD), most likely by increasing Th17 cells. PMID: 28164472
  35. this study shows that IL-15 induces cytokine-induced killer cells with a potent cytotoxic activity mostly against tumor cells from epithelial solid malignancies via NKG2D-mediated mechanism. PMID: 27615504
  36. IL-15 is able to significantly regulate the inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in polymyositis patients through affecting the NF-kB pathway and MMP-9 expression levels. PMID: 27374114
  37. IL-15 mRNA expression was significantly higher in patients with moderately severe viral bronchiolitis compared to controls and patients with severe disease. Serum IL15 correlated with disease severity. PMID: 26541527
  38. These data underline the potential of "free" IL15 in the absence of Ralpha-complex as a powerful and specific immuno-modulator, which may be beneficial where selective immune-activation is desired. PMID: 26822794
  39. Culturing NK cells under hypoxia compared with ambient air (normoxia) and IL-15 priming synergistically augmented glycolytic gene expression without major changes in glycolytic flux and glucose consumption. PMID: 27129235
  40. Findings suggest for co-targeting shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other interleukin 15 (IL-15) agonists. PMID: 26625316
  41. Report improved antitumoral NK-cell activity in DC-based vaccine strategies through the use of IL-15/IL-15Ralpha mRNA-engineered designer DC. PMID: 26675759
  42. The novel mechanism of IL-15 transfer to the surface of antigen-processing DCs may explain the enhanced potency of IL-15:IL-15Ralpha-coated nanoparticles for antigen delivery. PMID: 26719339
  43. Virtual memory T cells develop and mediate bystander protective immunity in an IL-15-dependent manner. PMID: 27097762
  44. results demonstrated the relative functional deficiencies of alpha-GalCer induced UCB iNKT cells, which can be ameliorated by IL-15 PMID: 26481260
  45. Protein, mRNA, and serum expression levels of MMP-7 and IL-15 in patients with osteoarthritis were all significantly increased in osteoarthritis patients compared with the control group. PMID: 26464654
  46. Downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation enhances tumoricidal effect of IL-15-activated dendritic cell against doxorubicin-resistant lymphoma and leukemia via TNF-alpha. PMID: 26255115
  47. Exercise-stimulated interleukin-15 is controlled by AMPK and regulates skin metabolism and aging. PMID: 25902870
  48. Studeis indicate that expression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in tissues promotes T helper 1 cell-mediated immunity. PMID: 26567920
  49. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism to attenuate IL-15-dependent NK cell proliferation and suggest that inhibitory NK cell receptors contribute to NK cell homeostasis. PMID: 26453750
  50. IL15 was expressed primarily in the suprabulb of the hair follicle. PMID: 26479922
  51. IL-15-derived dendritic cells elicited greater antigen-specific, primary and secondary CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses than did IL-4-derived ones PMID: 25582338
  52. Our study provides a better understanding of IL-15 signaling in renal cell carcinoma tumor progression PMID: 26025664
  53. Our data suggest that serum IL-15 at diagnosis is a novel, powerful predictor of prognosis for extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma PMID: 25428383
  54. Report Il15 levels in synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID: 25879761
  55. In addition to implicating IL15 deletion as a potential mechanism of immune escape in colorectal cancer, findings suggest that IL15 deletion may have utility as a prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer. PMID: 24795032
  56. data reveal that inflammatory IL-15 promotes optimal responses by memory CD8+ T cells. PMID: 26241055
  57. IL-15 dependent induction of IL-18 secretion as a feedback mechanism controlling human MAIT-cell effector functions PMID: 26046663
  58. These findings, together with immunohistochemical evidence of apoptotic cells and IL-15-producing cells proximal to B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) pseudofollicles in patient spleens, suggest that collaborative ODN and IL-15 signaling may promote in vivo B-CLL growth. PMID: 26136429
  59. In this study, our results showed that, in the nude mouse animal models, IL-15-expressing oncolytic virus had a stronger antitumor effect than oncolytic virus that did not express IL-15 PMID: 25627006
  60. Hantavirus-infected cells were shown to strongly activate NK cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent way, and this response was blocked with anti-IL-15 antibodies. PMID: 25412359
  61. our results show an association between both rs10519612 and rs17007695 polymorphisms and the risk of developing ALL, but there was no impact on OS or DFS in these patients. PMID: 24689757
  62. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer. PMID: 26141233
  63. IL15 is dedicated to the prolonged maintenance of memory T-cell responses to invading pathogens. [review] PMID: 25736261
  64. IRF-1 promotes LTx I/R injury via hepatocyte IL-15/IL-15Ralpha production and suggest that targeting IRF-1 and IL-15/IL-15Ralpha may be effective in reducing I/R injury associated with LTx. PMID: 25964490
  65. IL-15 and IL-17F are differentially regulated and expressed in MF. We propose that IL-15 and IL-17F are markers for different inflammatory environments and play distinct roles in the development and progression of MF. PMID: 24621498
  66. IL-15 has a role in growth and survival signaling in Hodgkin lymphoma and enhances the inflammatory phenotype of HRS cells PMID: 25486870
  67. GNLY-expressing lymphocytes, probably attracted by IL-15, not only participate partially in myocardial cell apoptosis, but also hasten resolution of cardiac leucocyte infiltration in patients with myocardial infarction. PMID: 21967803
  68. role in progression of bladder cancer PMID: 24953855
  69. Data indicate that natural killer (NK) cell expressing mbIL15 (linked IL15 gene to that encoding CD8alpha transmembrane domain) had higher cytotoxicity against leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumor cells in vitro and in xenograft models. PMID: 25006133
  70. Increased peripheral and local levels of IL-15 amplify the pathogenic potential of CD4+CD282 T cells, thus contributing to tissue damage in multiple sclerosis brain lesions. PMID: 25617471
  71. Data indicate an association between interleukin-15 (IL-15) rs3806798 and the risk of chronic HBV infection in Chinese Han population. PMID: 24762213
  72. IL-15+IL-12 has an immunomodulatory effect on NK cell subsets from HIV-infected individuals viz down-regulation of iNKRs, elevation of activatory receptors NKp46 and NKG2D, and induction of coreceptor NKp80. PMID: 22715368
  73. Circulating levels of IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha seem to reflect visceral distribution of adipose tissue; epicardial fat may be a potential source of both IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha. PMID: 24603895
  74. Data show that interleukin 15 (hIL-15) gene-modified NK cells can augment the anti-tumor effect of NK cells on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vivo and suggest applicability as a new candidate for adoptive immunotherapy against HCCs in the future. PMID: 24721706
  75. NK cell activity in children with IDDM after in vitro stimulation by IL15 inhibits autoimmunity by increased IL10 synthesis. PMID: 25577895
  76. we have identified IL-15 receptors on the surface of cardiomyocytes and delineated the signaling system by which hypoxic cardiomyocytes may be protected from cellular death and rescued from oxidative stress with IL-15 treatment PMID: 24805144
  77. Enhanced T cell activation following combination targeting depended on DC-mediated cytokine release and was IL-15 dependent. PMID: 25080481
  78. Studies indicate that IL-15 signaling pathway aberrancies in its regulation are associated with chronic inflammation and cancer. PMID: 24737791
  79. IL-15 rs2254514 polymorphism might have an important role in the development of UC in the Mexican population. PMID: 24415300
  80. DC-produced IL-15 to achieve the anti-HIV-1 specific priming. PMID: 24777763
  81. IL15 RNA expression did not vary in duodenal samples of celiac disease patients and controls. PMID: 24394601
  82. Hence, the targeted combination of IL-15 and 4-BBL in the form of a trifunctional antibody-fusion protein is a promising new approach for cancer immunotherapy. PMID: 24198185
  83. Data suggest that the Interleukin (IL)-15 and interleukin 15 receptor alpha (IL-15.IL-15Ralpha) complex cleaved from presenting cells allows responding cells to internalize, store and use IL-15.IL-15Ralpha complex for their own proliferation and survival. PMID: 24912180
  84. we present an association of IL-15 gene polymorphisms with the RFs including subtypes (RF, IgG, IgA) underlined by the relation of increased IL-15 levels in circulation to RFs. PMID: 23773307
  85. Data indicate that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) abolishes nuclear localization of IL-15 and IL-15Ralpha by acting on chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1), and it facilitates exocytosis of IL-15 with the involvement of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6). PMID: 23950892
  86. Interleukin 15 primes natural killer cells to kill via NKG2D and cPLA2 and this pathway is active in psoriatic arthritis. PMID: 24086722
  87. Il-15 increases pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia growth and upregulates central nervous system homing molecules, and MEK/ERK, PI3K, and NF-kappaB inhibitors block IL-15 growth effects. PMID: 24700781
  88. monocytes of healthy older adults (age >/= 65) had increased cell surface IL-15 expression in response to IFN-gamma compared to those of healthy young adults (age PMID: 24657713
  89. IL-15 is upregulated in uterosacral ligaments in pelvic organ prolapse PMID: 23700042
  90. This study suggests that BAFF suppresses IL-15 expression in autoimmune diseases PMID: 24670802
  91. In mice given food antigen, cooperation between IL15 and CD4(+) T cells is necessary and sufficient to activate CD8(+) T cells and damage the small intestine. PMID: 24361466
  92. although IL-15 seems to be responsible for inflammation and autoimmunity, it also may increase the immune response against cancer. [review] PMID: 23791986
  93. Premature action of IL-15 interferes with CD62L-dependent tethering/rolling of peripheral blood CD16(-) NK cells on Human uterine microvascular endothelial cells, which is an early critical process of leukocyte extravasation. PMID: 23904514
  94. there was no difference in serum IL-15 levels between active and inactive disease states in Behcet disease. PMID: 23417200
  95. Single nucleotide polymorphism in IL15 gene is associated with ER-positive breast cancers only in American women of African ancestry. PMID: 23996684
  96. Various alleles, haplotypes and genotypes are found at higher frequencies in visceral leishmaniasis ptients, whereas others are more frequent in controls. PMID: 23649772
  97. dispensable for maintenance of circulating NK cells PMID: 24184554
  98. regulator of the oxidative and fatigue properties of skeletal muscle [review] PMID: 23072822
  99. Sp1 is required for IL-15 induction by both poly(I:C) and respiratory syncytial virus, a response that also requires NFkappaB2 and IKKepsilon. PMID: 23873932
  100. Detailed mechanistic knowledge of IL-15 biology is envisaged to make the most of a powerful immunotherapeutic tool ranked as one of the most promising for cancer immunotherapy. PMID: 23157547

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Subcellular Location Isoform IL15-S48AA: Secreted, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform IL15-S21AA: Cytoplasm, Nucleus
Protein Families IL-15/IL-21 family
Tissue Specificity Most abundant in placenta and skeletal muscle. It is also detected in the heart, lung, liver and kidney. IL15-S21AA is preferentially expressed in tissues such as testis and thymus.
Database Links

HGNC: 5977

OMIM: 600554

KEGG: hsa:3600

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000296545

UniGene: Hs.168132

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