Recombinant Human Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial(GLS),partial

Code CSB-EP009528HU(F)
Size US$2466Purchase it in Cusabio online store
(only available for customers from the US)
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names GLS
Uniprot No. O94925
Research Area Metabolism
Alternative Names AAD20; DKFZp686O15119; FLJ10358; GAC; GAM; GLS; GLS1; GLSK_HUMAN; Glutaminase C; Glutaminase kidney isoform; Glutaminase phosphate activated; K-glutaminase; KGA; KIAA0838; L glutamine amidohydrolase; L-glutamine amidohydrolase; mitochondrial
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 370-669aa
Target Protein Sequence YVGFSNATFQSERESGDRNFAIGYYLKEKKCFPEGTDMVGILDFYFQLCSIEVTCESASVMAATLANGGFCPITGERVLSPEAVRNTLSLMHSCGMYDFSGQFAFHVGLPAKSGVAGGILLVVPNVMGMMCWSPPLDKMGNSVKGIHFCHDLVSLCNFHNYDNLRHFAKKLDPRREGGDQRVKSVINLLFAAYTGDVSALRRFALSAMDMEQRDYDSRTALHVAAAEGHVEVVKFLLEACKVNPFPKDRWNNTPMDEALHFGHHDVFKILQEYQVQYTPQGDSDNGKENQTVHKNLDGLL
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 60.4kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info N-terminal GST-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Function
Catalyzes the first reaction in the primary pathway for the renal catabolism of glutamine. Plays a role in maintaining acid-base homeostasis. Regulates the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.; Lacks catalytic activity.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Overexpressing glutaminase abolished the inhibitory effects of miR-1-3p on bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and glutaminase depletion resulted in the prolonged expression of gammaH2AX, an established biomarker for DNA damage. PMID: 30458442
  2. These results reveal that GAC is post-translationally regulated by phosphorylation, which affects cellular glutamine metabolism and glutaminase-related cell phenotype. PMID: 30092248
  3. In silico analysis potentially links GLS SNPs with Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID: 29441491
  4. Del11q-positive CLL lymphocytes exhibit altered glutamine metabolism and differential response to GLS1 and glucose metabolism inhibition. PMID: 29367649
  5. Overexpression of miR-513c suppresses neuroblastoma cells' migration, invasion, and proliferation. We demonstrate the glutaminase (GLS) is a direct target of miR-513c in human neuroblastoma cells. PMID: 28800318
  6. the present findings enriched our knowledge by demonstrating a significant association of PKM2 and GLS1 with oxaliplatin-resistance in CRC. PMID: 28498807
  7. miR-137 was decreased in melanoma tissue, and the low miR-137 levels and high glutaminase expression are independent risk factors in melanoma. miR-137 suppressed the proliferation and glutamine catabolism of melanoma cells. PMID: 29097210
  8. ZIC5 positively regulated the proliferation, migration (Fig. 2), and survival (Fig. 5) of PCa and CRC cells PMID: 29032577
  9. the crystal structure of full-length KGA and present a small-angle X-ray scattering model for full-length GLS2. These structures explain these proteins' compromised ability to assemble into catalytically active supra-tetrameric filaments, as previously shown for GAC. PMID: 28526749
  10. GLS1 inhibition using BPTES reduced metabolic intermediates including thymidine and carbamoyl phosphate. Reduction of thymidine and carbamoyl-phosphate synthesis by BPTES treatment exacerbated pyrimidine supply by combination with 5-FU, which induced cell death synergistically in NSCLC PMID: 27338638
  11. studies show that the formation of large GAC oligomers is not a pre-requisite for full enzymatic activity. They also offer a mechanism by which the binding of activators like inorganic phosphate enables the activation loop to communicate with the active site to ensure maximal rates of catalysis, and promotes the opening of the lid to achieve optimal product release. PMID: 27542409
  12. Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with a low level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytesand poor disease-free survival in triple-negative breast cancers presenting with lymph node metastasis and high levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. PMID: 28185053
  13. Study reports that GLS1 is a direct target of miR-23a in retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE) providing evidence for a role in maintaining RPE cell function. PMID: 27411920
  14. The relative expression of microRNA-153 and glutaminase in glioblastoma versus matched non-tumor tissues showed a reverse correlation, further indicating that microRNA-153 may negatively regulate glutaminase in vivo. PMID: 28218035
  15. High GLS1 expression is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer. PMID: 26771232
  16. Data suggest that glutaminase C (GAC) inhibition maybe a potential treatment strategy for acquired erlotinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID: 26575584
  17. Findings indicate a role for transcription factor c-Jun as a driver of cancer cell metabolic reprogramming, and suggest that cancers overexpressing JUN may be especially sensitive to glutaminase (GLS)-targeted therapies. PMID: 27089238
  18. GLS1 was identified as a potential downstream target of the miR-192/-204-HOTTIP axis in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26710269
  19. Our findings support the role of the GLS long microsatellite in the development of HE; this could be important for identifying susceptible patients and for the prevention of this condition. PMID: 25880019
  20. GABAergic neurons and astrocytes express Gls and Gls2 isoenzymes in nucleus and mitochondria, in addition to glutamatergic neurons PMID: 25297978
  21. studies demonstrate that GLS is required for tumorigenesis and support small molecule and genetic inhibition of GLS as potential approaches for targeting the tumor cell-autonomous dependence on GLS for cancer therapy. PMID: 25915584
  22. GLS1 has a key role in coupling glutaminolysis of the TCA cycle with elevated glucose uptake and consequently the growth of prostate cancer cells PMID: 25482439
  23. These results suggest that the expression of GLS1 is upregulated and correlates with clinicopathological factors in colorectal cancer. PMID: 24696726
  24. Silencing GLS or overexpressing GLS2 induces growth inhibition in glioma cell lines. PMID: 24276018
  25. our data indicate that ErbB2 activation promotes GLS1 expression via a PI3K-Akt-independent NF-kappaB pathway in breast cancer cells, identifying another oncogenic signaling pathway which stimulates GLS1 expression PMID: 24122876
  26. The rate of Glu decarboxylation into GABA by Glnase is an order of magnitude lower than that of Glutamate decarboxylase. Potential impact on the mechanistic aspects of Gln-Glu shuttle in neuroscience and glutaminolysis in tumors, is discussed. PMID: 24755074
  27. STAT1 regulates human glutaminase 1 promoter activity PMID: 24086752
  28. Inhibition of glutaminase selectively suppresses the growth of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells with IDH mutations. PMID: 24333121
  29. A glutaminase inhibitor reduced conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to alanine. PMID: 23722553
  30. HER2- type breast cancer had the highest expression of stromal GLS1, tumoral GDH, stromal GDH, and tumoral ASCT, while TNBC had the lowest tumoral GDH expression. PMID: 23507704
  31. activated glutaminase C (GAC) self-assembles into a helical, fiber-like double-stranded oligomer and propose a molecular model consisting of seven tetramer copies per turn per strand interacting via the N-terminal domains PMID: 23935106
  32. stromal expression of the glutamine-metabolism-related proteins GLS1, GDH, ASCT2 increases with worsening histological phyllodes tumor grade. PMID: 23636801
  33. neuronal glutaminase is a potential component of neurotoxicity during inflammation and modulation of glutaminase may provide therapeutic avenues for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 23578284
  34. NSCLC cell lines depend on Gln for glutaminolysis to a varying degree, in which the GLS1 splice variant GAC plays an essential role and is a potential target for cancer metabolism-directed therapy. PMID: 22892846
  35. Data indicate that both HIV-1 infection and IFN-alpha treatment increase glutaminase 1 (GLS1) expression through STAT1 phosphorylation and by binding to the GLS1 promoter. PMID: 22479354
  36. KGA activity in cells is stimulated by EGF, and KGA associates with all three kinase components of the Raf-1/Mek2/Erk signaling module. PMID: 22538822
  37. Inhibition of Gls1 kills lung cancer cells that overexpress MYC and catabolize glutamine. PMID: 22326218
  38. GLS1 differs from PFKFB3 in that its recognition by APC/C-Cdh1 during S phase requires the presence of both a Lys-Glu-Asn box (KEN box) and a destruction box (D box) rather than a KEN box alone. PMID: 22106309
  39. first report of full-length crystal structure of a splice variant of GLS1 in presence/absence of BPTES, an allosteric inhibitor: 2 BPTES molecules bind at interface of GLS1 tetramer; appear to lock GLS1 tetramer into nonproductive conformation PMID: 22049910
  40. Glutamine synthetase is a genetic determinant of cell type-specific glutamine independence in breast epithelia PMID: 21852960
  41. This studt demonistrated that the genetic variation in the glutaminase gene GLS1 is related the glutamine/glutamate ratio in brain. PMID: 21457947
  42. Glutaminase: a hot spot for regulation of cancer cell metabolism. PMID: 21234284
  43. Data show that the ability to selectively slow growth in cells with IDH1 mutations by inhibiting glutaminase suggesting a unique reprogramming of intermediary metabolism and a potential therapeutic strategy. PMID: 21045145
  44. This study identifies mutations in the gene sequence for glutaminase that are associated with development of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis PMID: 20820037
  45. Data suggest that glutaminase is an important factor in melanoma cell proliferation. PMID: 12579526
  46. human neutrophils appeared to utilize glutamine and posess the appropriate glutaminase enzyme for metabolizing glutamine. PMID: 14722097
  47. possible role for intestinal glutaminase in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy PMID: 15246207
  48. K glutaminase isoform is up-regulated with increased rates of proliferation in cancer cells, whereas prevalence of the L isoform seems to be related with resting or quiescent cell states PMID: 15496140
  49. c-Myc transcriptionally represses miR-23a and miR-23b, resulting in greater expression of their target protein, mitochondrial glutaminase, in human P-493 B lymphoma cells and PC3 prostate cancer cells PMID: 19219026
  50. Release of glutaminase from dysfunctional macrophages is a possible mechanism of glutaminase-mediated production of excitotoxic glutamate during the pathogenic process of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 associated dementia. PMID: 19222703

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Subcellular Location [Isoform 1]: Mitochondrion. Cytoplasm, cytosol.; [Isoform 3]: Mitochondrion.; [Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial 68 kDa chain]: Mitochondrion matrix.; [Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial 65 kDa chain]: Mitochondrion matrix.
Protein Families Glutaminase family
Tissue Specificity Isoform 1 and isoform 3 are detected in brain cortex. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in astrocytoma, ganglioglioma and ependymoma. Isoform 1 is highly expressed in brain and kidney, but not detected in liver. Isoform 3 is highly expressed in heart and panc
Database Links

HGNC: 4331

OMIM: 138280

KEGG: hsa:2744

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000317379

UniGene: Hs.116448

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