Human Alpha-fetoprotein,AFP ELISA Kit

Code CSB-E04770h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name alpha-fetoprotein
Alternative Names Afp ELISA Kit; AFPD ELISA Kit; Alpha fetoglobulin ELISA Kit; Alpha fetoprotein ELISA Kit; Alpha fetoprotein precursor ELISA Kit; Alpha-1-fetoprotein ELISA Kit; Alpha-fetoglobulin ELISA Kit; Alpha-fetoprotein ELISA Kit; alpha-fetoprotein; Hereditary persistence of; included ELISA Kit; FETA ELISA Kit; FETA_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Hereditary persistence of alpha fetoprotein ELISA Kit; HPAFP ELISA Kit
Abbreviation AFP
Uniprot No. P02771
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 1.563 ng/mL-100 ng/mL
Sensitivity 1.332 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Cancer
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich


Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%

Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.

Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays):CV%<10%

Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.




To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human AFP in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.


Typical Data

These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.

and FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Binds copper, nickel, and fatty acids as well as, and bilirubin less well than, serum albumin. Only a small percentage (less than 2%) of the human AFP shows estrogen-binding properties.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Peak preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein to total tumor volume predicts recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 29284589
  2. the results suggest that AFP may positively regulate cell proliferation by enhancing the apoptosis resistance via effect on TGF-beta and p53/Bax/caspase-3 signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. As such, the knockdown of AFP gene should be further investigated in vivo as a novel approach to hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID: 30249880
  3. Aberrant CTNNB1 expression was seen in a substantial proportion of our hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases. CTNNB1-positive HCC was associated with normal AFP levels, unicentric tumors, well-differentiated histology, and an unfavorable outcome. PMID: 30082549
  4. Elevated preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein levels have predictive value for hepatocellular carcinoma survival. PMID: 28893428
  5. Cases of ovarian ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) with elevated serum AFP should be sampled extensively to look for foci of intestinal-type glands, the likely source of the alpha fetoprotein (AFP) elevation in some of these neoplasms. PMID: 28582340
  6. In HBV-related cirrhosis, the combination of miR-122, AFP and PIVKA-II enables the identification of patients at higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development. PMID: 28650134
  7. Examination of AFP over time has great predictive and prognostic value for managing advanced gastric cancer. For those with markedly elevated AFP, triplet regimens may be a better choice. PMID: 29375212
  8. Low expression of AFP is associated with recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 29572833
  9. High-levels of PIVKA-II in at-risk patients is an indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)development in two-year time. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that PIVKA-II effectively increases the detection rate of HCC was a valid complement to AFP and image examination in HCC surveillance PMID: 28863782
  10. Unspecific AFP elevations occur in about 2% of pure testicular seminoma patients. PMID: 28668957
  11. serum level in the second trimester an important indicator of fetal surface malformations PMID: 27771626
  12. HCC [hepatocellular carcinoma] patients who are sero-positive for DCP [Des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin] and sero-negative for AFP[Alpha-fetoprotein] have significantly higher levels of serum ALT[alanine aminotransferase]; serum ALT levels may be of diagnostic importance in AFP-negative, HBV-related HCC [hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma] patients. PMID: 29192630
  13. Higher baseline serum AFP levels independently predicted a lower sustained viral response to antivirals among patients with chronic hepatitis C. PMID: 17713163
  14. Computer modeling shows the identification of potential binding sites of lysophospholipids (LP) receptors on the AFP third domain receptor binding fragment. AFP might bind not only to the LPL receptors, but also to LPLs themselves since AFP binds medium and long chain fatty acids. It is proposed that some of the activities ascribed to AFP might be due in part to the presence of bound LPLs and/or their receptors. [review] PMID: 26844573
  15. AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. PMID: 27255186
  16. PIVKA II, when combined with AFP, may be considered as a screening test for hepatocellular carcinoma due to its high negative predictive value. PMID: 28652441
  17. Identification of the distinct impact of circulating tumor derived AFP on NK-cell function and viability may be crucial to developing a strategy to ameliorate hepatocellular carcinoma patient NK-cell functional deficits. PMID: 28468916
  18. The detection of ALT, AFP, AFP-L3, and GP73 has a certain guiding significance to predict the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatic cirrhosis patients PMID: 28540298
  19. Antibody therapy targeted at AFP-producing tumor cells showed an inhibitory effect on the PI3K/AKT pathway via the liberation, restoration and functional stabilization of PTEN. PTEN simultaneously induced both P53 activation and intracellular translocation of GLUT1, since these are closely associated with PTEN. PMID: 28498467
  20. Incorporation AFP status into the BCLC staging system to modify the recommended treatment of patients with stage C hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 27835609
  21. we used alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a specific liver cancer marker, as an example to determine whether peptide-MHC complexes can be targets for CAR T-cell therapy against solid an established intraperitoneal liver cancer xenograft model, AFP-CAR T cells showed robust antitumor activity PMID: 27535982
  22. miR-620, miR-1236 and miR-1270 are critical factors in the post-transcriptional regulation of AFP in hepatitis B infected hepatoma cells. Icaritin can counteract the effect of HBV. PMID: 27835879
  23. BWS registries and prospective clinical studies will assess the most appropriate means to screen for hepatoblastoma, whether aFP-screened patients have additional survival benefit over patients screened by US only, and whether the outcome is improved by earlier detection PMID: 28211991
  24. p55PIK significantly stimulated the expression of AFP by activating NF-kappaB signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID: 28970114
  25. Irregular MIP pattern by CEUS and high level of serum AFP-L3 were independent risk factors for poor outcome after successful RFA. The Patients with these findings should be considered as special high-risk group in early-stage HCC. PMID: 27748052
  26. our data suggest that HBeAg seroconversion and liver cirrhosis are associated with the occurrence of HCC and that a surveillance system with regular measurement of AFP to watch for the occurrence of HCC may be mandatory for children and young patients with chronic HBV infection. PMID: 27748053
  27. We could demonstrate in our cohort the superior detection of early stage HCC with the combined use of the respective biomarkers and in particular GALAD even in AFP-negative tumors. PMID: 27936479
  28. A correlation was found between serum AFP concentration and age in extremely low-birthweight infants (ELBWI), and the 95%CI of serum AFP concentration was determined for ELBWI up to 2 years after birth. PMID: 27400853
  29. rAFP promoted growth of the human HCC cells, antagonize paclitaxel inhibition of HCC cell proliferation, suppress expression of active caspase-3, and promote expression of Ras and survivin. PMID: 28554567
  30. Measurements of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) - hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT). PMID: 27304617
  31. AFP mRNA level is in enriched circulating tumor cells from patients with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 27160647
  32. High serum AFP levels were significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese asymptomatic population. PMID: 27121855
  33. Contrary to expectation, Chronic Hepatitis B patients with current or recent exposure to NA therapy showed poorer performance of AFP during hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance PMID: 27997559
  34. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II showed higher area under the curve than alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients (0.901 vs 0.788).We conclude that Combining alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II may improve the diagnostic value for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 28621228
  35. AFP expression turned on prior to expression of Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and c-myc, and the stemness markers CD44, CD133 and EpCAM in the normal human liver L-02 cell line or CHL cell lines upon transfection with MCV-HBx vectors. HBx stimulates AFP expression to induce natural reprogramming of liver cells, and AFP plays a critical role in promoting the initiation of HCC progenitor/stem cells. PMID: 27925189
  36. analysis of alpha-fetoprotein producing early gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation PMID: 27688662
  37. Lower post-treatment AFP levels and HCV genotype 2 significantly correlated with liver fibrosis regression after sustained virological response. PMID: 27123974
  38. Increased expression of AFP resulted in the upregulation of beta-catenin mRNA and protein levels, while knockdown of AFP with AFP shRNA led to significantly decreased beta-catenin mRNA and protein levels in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID: 27924522
  39. serum level differentiates hepatocellular carcinoma from liver cirrhosis, especially when combined with acarboxyprothrombin PMID: 28296720
  40. soluble alpha-fetoprotein is a marker for Fanconi anemia; FANC proteins form multi-protein complexes with BRCA proteins and are involved in homologous DNA repair [review] PMID: 27690720
  41. Studies indicate that the experimental data on the carboxy-terminal third domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-3D) interaction with cell cycle proteins in cultured MCF-7 breast cancer cells were consistent with the "in silico" findings. PMID: 27448301
  42. we evaluated the clinical performance of LOCItrade mark-based tumor marker assays CEA, CA19-9, CA15-3, CA125 and AFP in patients with gastrointestinal cancer and demonstrated their high diagnostic power PMID: 28011514
  43. The definitive endoderm and foregut endoderm differentiation capabilities of Wnt pathway-modulated cells were determined based on the expression levels of the endodermal transcription factors SOX17 and FOXA2 and those of the transcription activator GATA4 and the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene, respectively. PMID: 26861571
  44. Suggest elevated serum AFP levels may have diagnostic value for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma in Korean patients. PMID: 26767857
  45. AFP promoted hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis via up-regulating expression of metastasis-related proteins. PMID: 26756858
  46. Interference of AFP reduced AGS gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis by enhancing anoikis sensitivity. PMID: 26986949
  47. High serum alpha-fetoprotein is associated with colon cancer. PMID: 26976278
  48. High serum AFP is associated with hepatitis B virus infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26784252
  49. Elevated insulin resistance, leptin, serum iron, ferritin, mean platelet volume, NLR, and advanced fibrosis, as well as decreased platelet count and serum albumin, are independently associated with an elevated AFP level in chronic hepatitis C. PMID: 26618566
  50. VEGF could be a potential biomarker for HCC, while AFP could be used to distinguish between patients with HCC and cirrhosis or HCV. PMID: 26782388
  51. Data indicate the diagnostic criteria of chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit (beta-hCG) and alpha-Fetoprotein (alphaFP) in CSF and serum, which may advance the early and formal diagnosis of intracranial germ cell tumors (ICGCTs). PMID: 26968839
  52. The risk of post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence is dependent on the last pre-transplant AFP regardless of its previous dynamics. PMID: 26887339
  53. Results show that AFP normalization within three months after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a prognostic surrogate for overall survival and progression free survival in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26681337
  54. A high level of serum AFP is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer and can be used for evaluating the prognosis of gastric cancers whether in the presence or absence of liver metastasis. PMID: 26349668
  55. Simultaneous determination of the AFP, AFP-L3 and TP53 yielded a better diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the detection of HCCs than each biomarker alone. PMID: 27468575
  56. the accuracy of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma from various controls was 6.2-9.7% higher than that of AFP PMID: 27070780
  57. Integration of the AFP delta-slope with conventional criteria may further improve HCC patient selection for liver transplantation and treatment outcomes. PMID: 26373980
  58. AFP remained the best single marker, and the combined use of AFP with prothrombin precursor or DKK-1 had the best diagnostic performance compared to all other possible combinations of the four biomarkers, even in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26986465
  59. combination of circulating miR-126 + AFP is a promising noninvasive diagnostic biomarker for HBV-HCC and may be useful in the management of HCC patients. PMID: 26756996
  60. Suggest that AFP with modified cutoffs according to the individual's hepatitis status might be a useful screening marker for HCC in hepatitis prevalent areas. PMID: 26436360
  61. Data show that both Ezrin and SIX1 proteins are highly expressed in alpha fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and significantly related with the TNM stage. PMID: 26927385
  62. When confirmed by a low alpha-fetoprotein concentration (<400 mug/L), CK-19 expression in is an additional valuable indicator of early recurrence, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis in HBV-positive patients PMID: 26588210
  63. The results of this meta-analysis showed that serum GP73 + AFP exhibited significantly higher diagnostic accuracy for HCC than did serum GP73 or AFP alone. PMID: 26441340
  64. AFP has a role in radiologic response to combined radiotherapy and transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus PMID: 26252472
  65. Although circulating serum AFP is known as a growth-enhancing factor during development, cytoplasmic AFP has a lethal role in the oncogenesis, growth, and metastasis of adult liver cancer. PMID: 26162540
  66. Serum levels of AFP, DKK1, and OPN were significantly elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 25652109
  67. Adding AFP and ascites to the BCLC staging classification can improve prognosis prediction for early and intermediate stages of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 25987792
  68. For Down syndrome affected pregnancies, the median MoM of first trimester PAPP-A, PlGF, and AFP were significantly reduced, and free-beta-hCG were significantly elevated. PMID: 25846403
  69. Letter: serial AFP measures improve performance characteristics of previously validated adjusted AFP algorithm for predicting the 6-month HCC risk among individuals with HCV-related cirrhosis. PMID: 26519622
  70. Data show that silencing of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression in HepG2 cells can effectively inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells and promote apoptosis, which may be useful for reducing intracellular Survivin mRNA levels. PMID: 25966084
  71. Levels of both serum prolidase and AFP could contribute to the early diagnosing of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26078578
  72. Sublingual vein parameters and AFP, AFP-L3, and GP73 serum gene expression facilitate early diagnosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26125916
  73. Maternal serum AFP was not associated with fetal open spina bifida. PMID: 24226839
  74. the experimental results and the molecular modeling data from the interactions of AFP and HSA with PTEN will help us to identify targets for designing drugs and vaccines against human hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26078940
  75. A partially methylated or unmethylated RASSF1A promoter as well as elevated serum AFP level or methylation of p21 in addition to elevated serum AFP level might be associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26019036
  76. High Alpha-fetoprotein expression is associated with rectal carcinoma. PMID: 25962419
  77. Mechanism underlying HBV x protein-induced specific expression of AFPR in hepatocytes. PMID: 23211536
  78. Regardless of virological response, telaprevir-based triple therapy reduced the serum AFP level. PMID: 25914481
  79. High levels of AFP were predictors of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 25945007
  80. Serum PIVKA-II might be a better tumor marker than AFP, and its combination with AFP may enhance the early detection of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B. PMID: 25852278
  81. YY1AP1 may serve as a key molecular target for EpCAM(+) AFP(+) HCC subtype PMID: 25597408
  82. The radiologic response was compatible with AFP response. PMID: 25773802
  83. predictive ability of baseline serum AFP level in HCC patients PMID: 25738614
  84. Data showed that upregulation of cytoplasmic AFP is associated with down-regulation of GADD45a in hepatocellular neoplastic tissues and that AFP mediated downregulation of GADD45a to accelerate aberrant growth of HBV infected cells. PMID: 25846475
  85. The miR-630 expression in carcinoma tissues revealed a positive correlation with the levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein PMID: 25731670
  86. Preoperative AFP could not contribute to predicting the survival of liver transplant patients who meet Milan and UCSF criteria, inversely, the survival is improved by taking into account preoperative AFP when tumors exceed UCSF criteria. PMID: 26176068
  87. Suggest preoperative serum level of CA19-1 may be more useful than CEA, CA72-4, AFP and CA125 levels as a prognostic factor in gastric cancer. PMID: 26176088
  88. Arg-1 is a more sensitive and better specific marker for hepatocellular carcinoma compared with HepPar-1 and AFP, indicating that Arg-1 can be easily applied in distinguishing HCC from metastatic tumors. PMID: 25577247
  89. Dried blood spot testing reliability and consistently allowed determination of plasma AFP levels. PMID: 25167201
  90. Serum AFP levels are significantly associated with fatty liver disease. AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID: 25206293
  91. Data indicate that silencing of alpha-fetoprotein led to an increased apoptosis, which was associated with a decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinases-2/9. PMID: 24587407
  92. Suggest that serum AFP measurements may have a significant role in increasing sensitivity in HCC surveillance, especially for detecting early stage HBV-related HCC. PMID: 25916058
  93. placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcome (PMAPO) before term but not PMAPO at term associated with elevated serum level in second trimester PMID: 25767942
  94. Studies indicate taht engineering alpha-fetoprotein created highly immunogenic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) vaccines. PMID: 25041030
  95. Serum AFP levels increased as pathological levels of inflammation and fibrosis increased in chronic hepatitis B patients. PMID: 25128299
  96. hepatocellular carcinoma-derived isoform inhibits dendritic cells differentiation and immunostimulatory functions PMID: 25355916
  97. Rheumatoid factor interferes with AFP measurement by ELISA. PMID: 25648018
  98. Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein is associated with germ-cell tumours. PMID: 25456363
  99. The prognosis of patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma strongly relies on maximum AFP or des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin values before transplantation. PMID: 24472068
  100. The elevation of hsAFP-L3 identifies patients with poor prognosis despite the normalization of AFP PMID: 24591342

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Involvement in disease Alpha-fetoprotein deficiency (AFPD); Alpha-fetoprotein, hereditary persistence (HPAFP)
Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families ALB/AFP/VDB family
Tissue Specificity Plasma. Synthesized by the fetal liver and yolk sac.
Database Links

HGNC: 317

OMIM: 104150

KEGG: hsa:174

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000379138

UniGene: Hs.518808

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