Recombinant Human Cytochrome c(CYCS)

Code CSB-YP006328HU
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Source Yeast
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Code CSB-EP006328HU-B
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Source E.coli
Conjugate Avi-tag Biotinylated
E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) is highly specific in covalently attaching biotin to the 15 amino acid AviTag peptide. This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag.
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Code CSB-BP006328HU
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Source Baculovirus
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Code CSB-MP006328HU
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Source Mammalian cell
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Product Details

>85% (SDS-PAGE)
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Alternative Names
CYC; CYC_HUMAN; CYCS; Cytochrome c; Cytochrome c somatic; HCS; THC4
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Protein Length
Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info
The following tags are available.
N-terminal His-tagged
The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer before Lyophilization
Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.; Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Cytochrome c was upregulated in the primary Sjogren's syndrome patients, indicating the potential role of cytochrome c in the pathogenesis and development of primary Sjogren's syndrome. PMID: 29257225
  2. The caspase-8/Bid/cytochrome c axis links signals from death receptors to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. PMID: 28888620
  3. This work reveals a direct conformational link between the 40-57 Omega-loop of cytochrome c in which residue 41 resides and the dynamical properties of the axial ligand to the heme iron. PMID: 27461282
  4. The naturally occurring Y48H variant of cytochrome c in its oxidized heme state is more peroxidatic than either the Wild Type protein or the G41S variant that is also implicated in thrombocytopenia. PMID: 29083920
  5. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. PMID: 28317242
  6. Data suggest that although HCCS mediates heme attachment to N-terminal cysteine in heme-attachment site (CXXXH) of cytochrome C variants, up to 50% of cytochrome C produced is modified in an oxygen-dependent manner, resulting in a mixed population of cytochrome c. [HCCS = holocytochrome c synthase] PMID: 28617588
  7. Data suggest that the stronger effect of K72A mutation on the peroxidase activity of human versus yeast cytochrome c results from relief of steric interactions between side chains at positions 72 and 81 (Ile in human vs Ala in yeast), which suppresses the dynamics of omega-loop D necessary for the intrinsic peroxidase activity of cytochrome c. PMID: 28598148
  8. These findings establish a framework for understanding the molecular basis of cytochrome c-mediated blocking of SET/TAF-Ibeta. PMID: 26216969
  9. Monitoring of serum cytochrome c might also serve as a sensitive apoptotic marker in vivo reflecting chemotherapy-induced cell death burden in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 25578497
  10. G-Rh2 causes rapid and dramatic translocation of both Bak and Bax, which subsequently triggers mitochondrial cytochrome c release and consequent caspase activation. PMID: 23443079
  11. The mitochondrial metalloprotease OMA1 was activated in a Bax- and Bak-dependent fashion. PMID: 25275009
  12. In vitro ultrastructural changes of MCF-7 for metastasise bone cancer and induction of apoptosis via mitochondrial cytochrome C released by CaCO3/Dox nanocrystals PMID: 25028650
  13. a mechanism of multiple radical formations in the cytochrome c-phospholipid complexes under H2O2 treatment, consistent with the stabilization of the radical in the G41S mutant, which elicits a greater peroxidase activity from cytochrome c PMID: 24099549
  14. proposed that mutation of residue 41, and interaction with cardiolipin, increase peroxidase activity by altering the 40-57 Omega loop and its hydrogen bond network with the propionate of haem ring A; these changes enhance access of hydrogen peroxide and substrate to the haem PMID: 24329121
  15. Data indicate a novel missense mutation (Y48H) of the cytochrome c (CYCS) gene responsible for thrombocytopenia. PMID: 24326104
  16. results suggest the impact of residue 41 on the conformation of cytochrome c influences its ability to act in both of its physiological roles, electron transport and caspase activation PMID: 23334161
  17. structural characterization of cytochrome c in micelle PMID: 23070294
  18. Data indicate that the formation of cytochrome c-Apaf-1 apoptosome and the presence of Smac are absolutely required for PSAP-induced apoptosis. PMID: 23207240
  19. Spectroscopic analyses of HCCS alone and complexes of HCCS with site-directed variants of cytochrome c revealed the fundamental steps of heme attachment and maturation. PMID: 23150584
  20. The levels of cellular apoptosis-associated proteins such as Smac/DIABLO, Cyto C, and the activated fragment of caspase-3 increased in pancreatic cancer cells, but the expression of XIAP was significantly decreased after 24 h treatment with the combination of TRAIL and gemcitabine. PMID: 22320973
  21. CCN1 promotes the activation of p53 and p38 MAPK, which mediate enhanced cytochrome c release to amplify the cytotoxicity of TNFalpha. PMID: 22363611
  22. Translocation of ARTS initiates a first wave of caspase activation leading to the subsequent release of additional mitochondrial factors, including cytochrome C and SMAC/Diablo. PMID: 21869827
  23. Tyrosine phosphorylation turns alkaline transition into a biologically relevant process and makes human cytochrome c behave as an anti-apoptotic switch. PMID: 21706253
  24. mitochondrial import and direct electron transfer from cytochrome c to Rac1 modulates mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production in alveolar macrophages pulmonary fibrosis. PMID: 22157762
  25. Dynamic changes in cytochrome c distribution at the Raman band of 750 cm(-1) were observed after adding an apoptosis inducer to the cells. PMID: 22184220
  26. Specific nitration of tyrosines 46 and 48 makes cytochrome c assemble a non-functional apoptosome. PMID: 22192356
  27. Studies indicate that the CYCS mutation in TP Cargeegis a glycine 41 replacement by serine, which yields a cytochrome C variant with enhanced apoptotic pathway activity in vitro. PMID: 22102269
  28. Data show that G-Rh2 and Bet A cooperated to induce Bax traslocation to mitochondria and cytochrome c release, and enhanced cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid. PMID: 21751259
  29. Cerebrospinal fluid Bcl-2 and cytochrome C levels are elevated in adults after severe traumatic brain injury. PMID: 21448217
  30. Resveratrol induces p53-independent, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP)-mediated Bax protein oligomerization on mitochondria to initiate cytochrome c release and caspase activation. PMID: 21712378
  31. heme electronic structure change may ultimately be responsible for the enhanced proapoptotic activity of G41S mutated human cyt c PMID: 21192676
  32. it is the specific nitration of solvent-exposed Tyr74 which enhances the peroxidase activity and blocks the ability of cytochrome c to activate caspase-9, thereby preventing the apoptosis signaling pathway PMID: 20227384
  33. Data show that sorafenib initiated lethal apoptotic process through the release of cytochrome c and caspase 3/7 activation. PMID: 19770576
  34. Serum LRG when bound to extracellular Cyt c that is released from apoptotic cells acts as a survival factor for lymphocytes and possibly other cells that are susceptible to the toxic effect of extracellular Cyt c. PMID: 19851871
  35. NOA36/ZNF330 is translocated from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm when apoptosis is induced and that it contributes to cytochrome c release. PMID: 19895853
  36. Membrane-associated XIAP induces mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization leading to cytochrome c and Smac release, which is dependent on Bax and Bak. PMID: 19875445
  37. galectin-3 is enriched in the mitochondria and prevents mitochondrial damage and cytochrome c release PMID: 11839755
  38. non-rare allelic variants of the Cyt c protein are absent in the populations analyzed in this study PMID: 16934433
  39. Mutation of human cytochrome c enhances the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and causes thrombocytopenia PMID: 18345000
  40. MICS1 individually functions in mitochondrial morphology and cytochrome c release. PMID: 18417609
  41. Serum cyto-c is a potent tumor marker as a predictor for malignant potential in several different types of cancer. PMID: 18825408
  42. Both neurons and cancer cells strictly inhibit cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis by a mechanism dependent on glucose metabolism. PMID: 19029908
  43. In 77 Italian patients with inherited thrombocytopenia and clinical and laboratory features similar to those of patients with the CYCS missense (Gly41Ser) mutation, no alterations of the open reading frame were identified. PMID: 19172527
  44. there was no evidence of somatic mutations of CYTOCHROME C in the cancers PMID: 19404857
  45. No difference in the serum level of cytochrome c was seen among the the groups of patients with type 2 diabetes, controls or in subjects with IGT. PMID: 19640329

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Involvement in disease
Thrombocytopenia 4 (THC4)
Subcellular Location
Mitochondrion intermembrane space. Note=Loosely associated with the inner membrane.
Protein Families
Cytochrome c family
Database Links

HGNC: 19986

OMIM: 123970

KEGG: hsa:54205

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000307786

UniGene: Hs.437060

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