p53 signaling pathway

Tumor protein p53, also known as p53 or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is a tumor suppressor protein encoded in humans by the TP53 gene. It is a crucial component in multicellular organisms, as it regulates the cell cycle and helps prevent cancer. p53 is the most frequently altered gene in human cancers. The name is due to its molecular mass: it is in the 53 kilodalton fraction of cell proteins. p53 activation is induced by a number of stress signals, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and activated oncogenes. The p53 protein is employed as a transcriptional activator of p53-regulated genes. This results in three major outputs; cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence or apoptosis. Other p53-regulated gene functions communicate with adjacent cells, repair the damaged DNA or set up positive and negative feedback loops that enhance or attenuate the functions of the p53 protein and integrate these stress responses with other signal transduction pathways.

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