Poly-ADP-ribosyltransferase that mediates poly-ADP-ribosylation of proteins and plays a key role in DNA repair. Mediates glutamate, aspartate, serine or tyrosine ADP-ribosylation of proteins: the ADP-D-ribosyl group of NAD(+) is transferred to the acceptor carboxyl group of target residues and further ADP-ribosyl groups are transferred to the 2'-position of the terminal adenosine moiety, building up a polymer with an average chain length of 20-30 units. Serine ADP-ribosylation of proteins constitutes the primary form of ADP-ribosylation of proteins in response to DNA damage. Mainly mediates glutamate and aspartate ADP-ribosylation of target proteins in absence of HPF1. Following interaction with HPF1, catalyzes serine ADP-ribosylation of target proteins; HPF1 conferring serine specificity by completing the PARP1 active site. Also catalyzes tyrosine ADP-ribosylation of target proteins following interaction with HPF1. PARP1 initiates the repair of DNA breaks: recognizes and binds DNA breaks within chromatin and recruits HPF1, licensing serine ADP-ribosylation of target proteins, such as histones, thereby promoting decompaction of chromatin and the recruitment of repair factors leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. In addition to base excision repair (BER) pathway, also involved in double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair: together with TIMELESS, accumulates at DNA damage sites and promotes homologous recombination repair by mediating poly-ADP-ribosylation. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a number of proteins, including itself, APLF and CHFR. In addition to proteins, also able to ADP-ribosylate DNA: catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of DNA strand break termini containing terminal phosphates and a 2'-OH group in single- and double-stranded DNA, respectively. Required for PARP9 and DTX3L recruitment to DNA damage sites. PARP1-dependent PARP9-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites. Acts as a regulator of transcription: positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. Plays a role in the positive regulation of IFNG transcription in T-helper 1 cells as part of an IFNG promoter-binding complex with TXK and EEF1A1. Involved in the synthesis of ATP in the nucleus, together with NMNAT1, PARG and NUDT5. Nuclear ATP generation is required for extensive chromatin remodeling events that are energy-consuming.