Recombinant Human Interleukin-21 protein(IL21) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP001881HU
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Product Details

Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by by a cell proliferation assay using human N1186 T cells is less than 20 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >5.0x104 IU/mg.
Target Names IL21
Uniprot No. Q9HBE4
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names CVID11; IL 21; IL-21; Il21; IL21_HUMAN; Interleukin 21; Interleukin-21; interleukin-21 isoform; Interleukin21; OTTHUMP00000164088; Za11
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 23-155aa
Mol. Weight 15.4 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Cytokine with immunoregulatory activity. May promote the transition between innate and adaptive immunity. Induces the production of IgG(1) and IgG(3) in B-cells (By similarity). May play a role in proliferation and maturation of natural killer (NK) cells in synergy with IL15. May regulate proliferation of mature B- and T-cells in response to activating stimuli. In synergy with IL15 and IL18 stimulates interferon gamma production in T-cells and NK cells. During T-cell mediated immune response may inhibit dendritic cells (DC) activation and maturation.
Gene References into Functions
  1. There was negative correlation between the expression of IL12 and miR21 in the serum of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 30106099
  2. IL-21 can potently induce CD11c(hi)T-bet(+) B cells and promote the differentiation of these cells into Ig-secreting autoreactive plasma cells PMID: 29717110
  3. IL-21 enhances cartilage inflammation to promote cartilage degradation through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in the cartilage of Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head patients. PMID: 29247327
  4. SHP-2 may augment the ERK1/2 activity and cell proliferation activity in IL-21 signaling. PMID: 29503347
  5. this study shows that Th9 cells promote antitumor immunity via IL-21 PMID: 28918288
  6. AD patients, especially those with acute lesions, exhibited elevated serum IL-21 levels. Therefore, IL-21 might be associated with the acute aggravation of AD. PMID: 27884624
  7. Study shows that IL-21 levels were non-specifically elevated across all febrile children, irrespective of Kawasaki disease diagnosis. PMID: 28427414
  8. These results suggest that cetuximab treatment in combination with IL-21 adjuvant therapy in patients with EGFR-positive pancreatic cancer results in significant NK cell activation, irrespective of KRAS mutation status, and may be a potential therapeutic strategy PMID: 27435400
  9. serum IL-21 levels at 12 weeks treatment was significantly elevated, which can predict the EVR, and contributes to individualization of antiviral therapy in HBeAg-positive CHB+NAFLD patients. PMID: 26840345
  10. IL-23 activates gammadelta T cells in early stage PNS, which amplifies the Th17 cell population and leads to kidney injury through the secretion of IL-21. PMID: 29119640
  11. IL-21 promotes the survival and CTLA-4 expression of Tregs and enhanced the suppressive capacity of Tregs during HIV infection. These results broaden the understanding of HIV pathogenesis and provide critical information for HIV interventions. PMID: 28043029
  12. IL-21 are important in the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis PMID: 29131072
  13. Data show that interleukin-21-primed cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes (CTL) with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) blockade is safe and produces durable clinical responses. PMID: 27269940
  14. These results indicate that significant increased IL-21 expression present within the adenoma/CRC microenvironment might have a potential predicating significance for survival time in patients with CRC. PMID: 28887120
  15. IL-21 modulates the effector functions of T, B and NK cells, which not only have key roles in antitumoral and antiviral immunity but also in exerting major effects on inflammatory responses promoting the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID: 26748727
  16. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells. PMID: 27157859
  17. Report efficient retroviral vector transduction of primary human natural killer cells that were stimulated by a combination of IL-2 and engineered K562 cells expressing membrane-bound IL-21 for cancer immunotherapy. PMID: 28802832
  18. IL21 reduction in osteosarcoma patients due to PD-1 and pd-L1 mediated follicular helper T cells suppression. PMID: 28650673
  19. this study shows that induction of IL-21 in T follicular helper cells is an indicator of influenza vaccine response in a HIV-infected pediatric cohort PMID: 28130496
  20. IL-21 levels in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid were associated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. PMID: 27733582
  21. the elevated level of IL-2+ and IL-21+ T cells and a positive correlation between IL-21+ cells with clinical activity index in ulcerative colitis patients may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. PMID: 28685527
  22. these results demonstrate a novel function for IL-21 in tuning NK and CD4+ T cell interactions promoting a specific expansion of central memory lymphocytes PMID: 27233967
  23. Combined IL-21-primed polyclonal CTL plus CTLA4 blockade controls refractory metastatic melanoma in a patient PMID: 27242164
  24. Our work suggests that IL-21 regulates megakaryocyte development and platelet homeostasis. Thus, IL-21 may link immune responses to physiological or pathological platelet-dependent processes. PMID: 28057742
  25. expression significantly downregulated in skin and blood of patients with tumor mycosis fungoides PMID: 26825047
  26. this study shows that Th17/Treg imbalance and increased IL-21 are associated with liver injury in patients with chronic HBV infection PMID: 28259000
  27. The findings of the current study indicate an association between IL-21+TFH cells and disease activity. IL-21+TFH levels may prove to be a useful marker of disease activity in OA patients. PMID: 28112376
  28. IL-21 is involved in the pathological development of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration and IL-21 could aggravate IVD degeneration by stimulating TNF-alpha through the STAT signaling pathway PMID: 28233079
  29. Our findings suggest that the rs12508721T/C and rs2221903A/G polymorphisms of IL-21 gene are associated with the susceptibility of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic HBV infection. The genetic variant may in fact cause protection against the HBV-related HCC. PMID: 27122304
  30. Hepatitis C virus specific IL-21 producing T cells but not IL-17A producing T Cells are associated with hepatitis C viral control in HIV/ hepatitis C virus coinfection. PMID: 27124305
  31. this study shows that the serum levels of IL-21 are higher in Iranian diabetes type I patients compared to the healthy individuals PMID: 27611173
  32. We characterized the expressed IL-21 gene from immune tissues of two macropod species, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), a model macropod, and the closely related endangered bridled nailtail wallaby (Onychogalea fraenata). The open reading frame of macropod IL-21 is 462 nucleotides in length and encodes a 153-mer putative protein that has 46% identity with human IL-21. PMID: 27306193
  33. The rs2055979 C>A polymorphism of the IL-21 gene is associated with cryptorchidism susceptibility, and the C allele increases the risk of cryptorchidism in a Chinese Han population. PMID: 26990619
  34. Polymorphisms in IL21 may be associated with sepsis risk PMID: 27295539
  35. review on IL-21 as is a crucial cytokine associated with pemphigus PMID: 26945832
  36. There is a strong association between IL2/IL21 rs6822844 variant and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Algerian population; this association is independent from the autoantibodies status of RA patients. PMID: 26917059
  37. HCV infection increased the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ T cells and decreased the frequency of CD27+IgG+ B cells. CD4+CXCR5+ T cells activated CD27+IgG+ B cells via the secretion of IL-21. PMID: 26818544
  38. IL-21 exerts major effects on B-cell activation and differentiation or apoptosis during humoral immune responses, and also affects different subtypes of T cells. (Review) PMID: 26466984
  39. The results suggest that IL-21 promotes migration and invasion of Rheumatoid arthritis-Fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-21 might be effective for the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 26646950
  40. IL-12 induced the generation of IL-21- and IFN-gamma-co-expressing poly-functional CD4+ T cells from human naive CD4+ T cells. PMID: 26566861
  41. IL-21 expression is promoted by MEKK4 in malignant T cells and is associated with progression risk in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma PMID: 26802931
  42. Human IL-21+IFN-gamma+CD4+ T cells in nasal polyps are regulated by IL-12. PMID: 26239551
  43. CD3(+)TCRvbeta11(+) NKT cells from a local site of M. tuberculosis infection produce IL-21, express CXCR5 and CD40L, help B cells to secrete IgG and IgA, and may participate in local immune responses against M. tuberculosis infection. PMID: 26416419
  44. IL-21 protein was higher in serum and mRNA and protein were higher in disc tissue of patients with lumbar disc herniation compared to controls. PMID: 26742440
  45. both IL-21 rs907715 and rs2221903 polymorphisms may be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility (meta-analysis) PMID: 26345892
  46. all Ifng+ T cells produced IL-21, but only a small percentage of highly proliferative Ifng+ T cells maintained a T-bethi phenotype PMID: 26646149
  47. increased production in patients with more severe systemic lupus erythematosus PMID: 26358223
  48. the minor allele T of both rs6822844 (T vs G, OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.67-0.78, P < 0.001) and rs6840978 (T vs C, OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.71-0.83, P < 0.001) in IL21 significantly decreased the risk of celiac disease (Meta-Analysis) PMID: 26535636
  49. the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemiacells, was studied. PMID: 26305332
  50. Loss of IL-21 is considered to lead to atrophied germinal centers in multicentric Castleman's disease. PMID: 26377996
  51. results suggest that IL-21 could promote rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes proliferation and production of proinflammatory cytokines PMID: 26482544
  52. IL-21 promotes pulmonary arterial hypertension in association with M2 macrophage polarization, downstream of IL-6-signaling. PMID: 25941359
  53. Reduced signaling of IL-21 was found in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. PMID: 26055806
  54. The data suggested a critical role of IL-21 in breaking immune homeostasis in aplastic anemia by promoting Th17 cells, activating bone marrow T cells and suppressing Tregs. PMID: 25784172
  55. IL-21 has multiple effects on Natural killer cell development and functions. PMID: 25758713
  56. identified IL-21 as an inducer of IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo PMID: 24796415
  57. Elevated follicular helper T cells and expression of IL-21 in thyroid tissues are involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease PMID: 25894310
  58. IL-21 biology is discussed in this article; and authors highlight its critical role in normal immunity and how dysregulated IL-21 production can lead to immunodeficiency and autoimmune conditions.[Review] PMID: 25801685
  59. Our findings suggest that theIL-21 gene plays an important role in susceptibility to DCM as well as in the clinical outcome of this ailment in the Han Chinese population. PMID: 24445858
  60. Il21 genotypes rs13143866 AA/rs2221903 TC are risk factors for carrying HBV, and ATA haplotype increases the risk of HBV-related HCC onset in a Chinese population. PMID: 25892873
  61. the elevated serum TGF-beta1 and IL-21 levels could contribute to enhanced Th17 cell differentiation in non-segmental vitiligo. PMID: 25604047
  62. IL-21 leads to natural killer (NK)-cell-dependent lysis of mantle cell lymphoma cell lines that were resistant to direct cytotoxicity. PMID: 26194763
  63. Antigen induced frequencies of pulmonary expressing IL-21 was also significantly lower in pulmonary tuberculosis individuals. PMID: 25343703
  64. expression of IL-21 and IL-21R were up-regulated in autoimmune thyroid disease and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease through augmenting aberrant immune cascade PMID: 25647271
  65. Results indicate that increased IL-21 production is likely to be an aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. PMID: 25652388
  66. The IL-21 rs907715 polymorphism might be associated with multiple autoimmune diseases susceptibility in Caucasians. (Meta-analysis) PMID: 25074442
  67. IL-17A, IL-17F and IL23R polymorphisms have no effect on expression of IL-6, IL-17, IL-21 and TGF-beta1 mRNAs expression in H. pylori-infected gastritis. PMID: 26151690
  68. Increased IL-21 level in polyp tissues was associated with disease severity, local B cell activation, and immunoglobulin production, suggesting that IL-21 might play an important role in promoting persistent mucosal inflammation in CRSwNP patients. PMID: 25495679
  69. IL-21/IL-21R could act as potential biomarkers presenting early systemic sclerosis skin lesions severity. PMID: 25500255
  70. It appears that there is no association of serum IL-21 level with multiple myeloma in contrast to the other cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha. PMID: 24823512
  71. It seems that the rs6822844 IL2-IL21 gene cluster polymorphism is of little importance in allograft function after kidney transplantation. PMID: 25377634
  72. findings imply that IL-21 positively regulates proinflammatory IFN-gamma(+)CD8(+) T cell responses during the process of chronic HBV infection in humans. PMID: 25243706
  73. Interleukin-21 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to ischemic stroke. PMID: 24879484
  74. Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22) were increased in the intestinal mucosa in active inflammatory bowel disease patients and may play an important role in disease activity and mucosal damage PMID: 25129403
  75. CD4+ T cell-derived IL-21 and deprivation of CD40 signaling favor the in vivo development of granzyme B-expressing regulatory B cells in HIV patients. PMID: 25780036
  76. We found no evidence that CXCL-10, IL-12 or IL-21 were associated with HBeAg seroconversion following HBV-active cART. PMID: 24430489
  77. circulating IL-21 levels may serve as a biomarker of disease activity and better outcome in early phase of rheumatoid arthritis PMID: 24702489
  78. Data suggest that interleukin (IL)-21 may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antagonizing IL-21 could be a novel strategy for the therapy of RA. PMID: 23176102
  79. IL-21 suppresses the development of Th2 cells and functions of polarized Th2 cells. PMID: 25351608
  80. Polymorphism in interleukin 21 gene is associated with decreased susceptibility to diffuse large B cell lymphoma. PMID: 25117075
  81. our results show for the first time the involvement of IL-21 during the clinical course of DENV infections. IL-21 may play a protective role in the context of the convalescent phase of primary infections and the acute phase of secondary infections. PMID: 24858204
  82. Serum IL-21 levels were significantly elevated in patients with Graves disease and decreased after treatment; moreover, IL-21 may be associated with the clinical disease activity. PMID: 24287789
  83. These findings suggest that aberrant IL-21 responses may be associated with the progression of chronic hepatitis B. PMID: 24611989
  84. IL-21 may act as an important inflammatory mediator in the immunopathogenesis of Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome PMID: 24510007
  85. IL-21 signals through the STAT-3 and STAT- 5b signaling pathway in the CIK cell pool. PMID: 24289584
  86. involvement of circulating Tfh and IL-21 in the pathogenesis and progression of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PMID: 24789434
  87. IL-21 receptor has a role in human tendinopathy PMID: 24757284
  88. The data suggest that the IL-21 rs907715G/A polymorphism may act as a protective factor of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and might affect the serum level of IL-21. PMID: 25126827
  89. serum level of IL-21 may be closely associated with the development and progression of coronary artery disease. PMID: 24673562
  90. These findings shed new light on the role of IL-21 in T cell differentiation, and have relevant implications for anti-IL-21 therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID: 25172491
  91. Oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 expression of CD4(+) T cells via MAPK-dependent pathways in SLE patients, which in turn induces increased antibody production by B cells. PMID: 24495300
  92. These data suggest that IL-21+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and elevated serum level of IL-21 may be associated with development of anlylosing spondylitis. PMID: 24187103
  93. increased production by CD4+ T cells is characteristic of pediatric celiac disease PMID: 23571506
  94. Our study uncovers IL-21 deficiency as a novel cause of early-onset IBD in human subjects accompanied by defects in B-cell development similar to those found in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. PMID: 24746753
  95. in vivo expansion and differentiation of human B cells in response to IL-21 PMID: 24214876
  96. ). IL-21 related defects may also be associated with reduced natural killer (NK)-cell cytotoxicity and TH17 cytokine production, indicating that abnormalities in the IL-21-IL-21R pathway have profound effects on crucial immune responses. [review] PMID: 24126614
  97. IL-21R gene polymorphisms and serum IL-21 levels predict virological response to interferon-based therapy in Asian chronic hepatitis C patients. PMID: 23296193
  98. TTA haplotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of SLE. PMID: 24434811
  99. Interleukin-21 promoter polymorphism increases the risk of thyroid cancer in Chinese population. PMID: 24389496
  100. Tpathogenic role of IL-21 in immune-inflammatory pathologies. [Review] PMID: 23553807

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Involvement in disease Immunodeficiency, common variable, 11 (CVID11)
Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families IL-15/IL-21 family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in activated CD4-positive T-cells but not in CD8-positive T-cells, B-cells, or monocytes.
Database Links

HGNC: 6005

OMIM: 605384

KEGG: hsa:59067

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000264497

UniGene: Hs.567559

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