Recombinant Human Thioredoxin(TXN) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP005541HU
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Specific activity as determined by the production of urea during the hydrolysis of arginine is greater than 0.1 Abs/min/mg.
Target Names TXN
Uniprot No. P10599
Research Area Signal Transduction
Alternative Names ADF; ATL derived factor; ATL-derived factor; DKFZp686B1993; MGC61975; SASP; Surface associated sulphydryl protein; Surface-associated sulphydryl protein; testicular tissue protein Li 199; THIO_HUMAN; Thioredoxin; thioredoxin delta 3; TRDX; TRX 1; Trx; TRX1; TXN; TXN delta 3; TXN protein; zgc:92903
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 1-105aa
Mol. Weight 13.9 kDa
Protein Length Full Length
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered 20 mM PB, 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.2
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity.; ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55).
Gene References into Functions
  1. Data suggest that TSTD1 can utilize thioredoxin as an acceptor in the presence of thioredoxin reductase and NADPH. (TSTD1 = thiosulfate sulfurtransferase-like domain-containing 1 protein) PMID: 29348167
  2. Based on recent research, it has been reported that the modulation of the Trx/TrxR system may be considered as a new target in the management of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, as well as in the treatment of hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review evidence about a possible role of this system as a marker of the metabolic syndrome is reported. [review] PMID: 29327078
  3. By establishing that IL-4 is posttranslationally regulated by TRX-promoted reduction of a disulfide bond, our findings highlight a novel regulatory mechanism of the type 2 immune response that is specific to IL-4 over IL-13. PMID: 30104382
  4. TRX1 is an actionable castration-resistant prostate cancer therapeutic target through its protection against AR-induced redox stress. PMID: 29089489
  5. Trx-1 may be an important target for delaying oral malignant transformation, which provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 29328386
  6. Results found the mRNA level of TRX-1 was significantly decreased (p<0.005), while the mRNA levels of TBP-2, COX-2, and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in the placentas in preeclampsia when compared to the normal group. PMID: 29999276
  7. This study quantified the contribution of Trx reductase to the redox status of Trx, demonstrating that the redox profile of Trx is determined by the interplay between the elevation of intracellular redox potential and the reduction by Trx reductase and other endogenous molecules. PMID: 29509009
  8. We identified a novel Jab1-Trx axis that is a key cellular process in the pathobiologic characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M5). Targeting the ROS/Jab1/Trx pathway could be beneficial in the treatment of AML-M5 PMID: 28270496
  9. study indicates that TRX levels cannot be used as a marker for Treatment Resistant Depression (trd) or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment in TRD. In spite of this TRX levels have a positive correlation with language functions of the patients. PMID: 28442424
  10. The reducing system of PTEN was comprised of NADPH, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1), and thioredoxin (Trx). PMID: 28774816
  11. Thioredoxin 1 modulates signaling mechanisms in the heart via its molecular targets, including transcription factors, microRNAs, histone deactylases, and protein kinases. (Review) PMID: 27993729
  12. The ratio of thioredoxin/Keap1 protein level may be useful for suggesting distant metastasis in colorectal cancer. PMID: 29053012
  13. Overexpression of NOS3 increased the levels and activities of proteins of the redoxin systems, Trx1, Grx1, TrxR1 and TxnIP, and the levels of signaling proteins (Akt1, pAkt1(-)Ser473, MapK, pMapK, Stat3, Fas). PMID: 28162284
  14. Increased serum thioredoxin concentrations are highly associated with trauma severity PMID: 28347674
  15. Plasma-TRX on day 1 was significantly increased in patients who later developed post-injury sepsis. In a logistic regression analysis including TRX, C-reactive protein, injury severity, massive transfusion, and admission blood pressure, TRX was the only variable independently associated with post-injury sepsis PMID: 28087409
  16. High TRX1 expression is associated with myocardial infarction. PMID: 26933812
  17. Data show that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) induced apoptosis via the down-regulation thioredoxin1 (Trx1), which was regulated by microRNA miR-129-5p. PMID: 28667779
  18. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. PMID: 26760912
  19. these findings demonstrate that Trx1 is a critical regulator of necroptosis that suppresses cell death by maintaining MLKL in a reduced inactive state. PMID: 28878015
  20. Study shows that TRX1 and APEX1 expressions are up regulated in new Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients compared to controls and might be implicated in pathogenesis of the disease. PMID: 28844667
  21. CD40 activation resulted in down-regulation of Thioredoxin (Trx)-1 to permit ASK1 activation and apoptosis. Although soluble receptor agonist alone could not induce death, combinatorial treatment incorporating soluble CD40 agonist and pharmacological inhibition of Trx-1 was functionally equivalent to the signal triggered by mCD40L PMID: 27869172
  22. our findings identify the TXN-FOXO1-p300 circuit as the sensor and effector of oxidative stress in DLBCL cells PMID: 27132507
  23. Novel positive feedback loop between Trx-1 and S100P promotes colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID: 28483515
  24. Thioredoxin attenuates oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by reducing NOX2-NOX4 activity. PMID: 28688762
  25. from the two catalytic cysteines of TRX1 the residue C32 is responsible for the high-affinity binding of TRX1 to the ASK1-TRX-binding domain in reducing conditions PMID: 27588831
  26. findings suggest that the up-regulated RRM1 and hTrx1 in colorectal cancer directly interact with each other and promote RR activity, resulting in enhanced DNA synthesis and cancer malignancy. PMID: 28411237
  27. Trx and its target proteins involved in redox signaling are critical for the control of cell fate such as cell survival and apoptosis [review] PMID: 27665998
  28. herefore, the length of treatment with Nrf2 activators and/or Trx-1 has first to be studied in more detail in cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, a combination of Nrf2 activators and Trx-1 should be investigated and taken into consideration. PMID: 27923281
  29. In an in vivo model of restenosis, which is characterized by oxidative stress, endothelial activation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, Thioredoxin-1 protein levels are reduced in the endothelium of the carotids. APEX1 acts anti-apoptotic in endothelial cells. This anti-apoptotic effect depends on the first 20 amino acids of APEX1 PMID: 27835927
  30. Authors found that TXN was under expressed in both AML and ALL groups as compared to the control group. Also TXN expression level was negatively correlated with serum 8-OHdG and tail moment in both AML and ALL. PMID: 27158980
  31. Increased S-Trx and U-Trx concentrations, especially U-Trx/cr ratio, are closely associated with the severity of children hydronephrosis, substantializing Trx as a promising biomarker for the progression of children hydronephrosis PMID: 28111273
  32. TRX in postoperative serum may be a potential biomarker to predict development of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. PMID: 28093200
  33. Serum levels of thioredoxin and DJ-1 were significantly higher in non-small cell lung cancer patients; therefore, these may be utilized as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer PMID: 26334622
  34. Elevated plasma thioredoxin levels are correlated with the severity and poor prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. PMID: 27000227
  35. Data show that the overexpression of thioredoxin1 (Trx1) attenuated apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in lung cancer cells. PMID: 26460805
  36. Based on its collective anti-oxidative, cytoprotective, and cytokine-like properties of TRX, TRX is likely to be involved in the optimal growth and maturation of ovarian follicles and responsiveness to hyperstimulation. PMID: 26536897
  37. change of serum levels of thioredoxin in patients with severe traumatic brain injury PMID: 26656445
  38. Serum TRX levels at admission were associated with stroke severity and lesion volumes. PMID: 25520003
  39. Results indicate that reduced Trx1 plays important protective roles against methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that cell protection is regulated by the intracellular redox state. PMID: 26276860
  40. The results demonstrate that the antiproliferative effect of NO is hampered by Trx1 and Grx1 and support the strategy of weakening the thiolic antioxidant defenses when designing new antitumoral therapies. PMID: 26210445
  41. differential expression in children with allergic asthma PMID: 25979194
  42. identification of the novel interaction between Trx1 and AIF has provided opportunities to design and develop therapeutically relevant strategies that either promote or prevent this protein-protein interaction for the treatment of different disease PMID: 26119781
  43. Thioredoxin 1 mediates TGF-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID: 26325518
  44. In Jurkat cells exposed to ionizing radiatin (4 Gy), constitutively active Trx systems respond to restore cellular redox balance. After 16 hrs, Trx increases and rescues cells against IR-mediated damage. PMID: 26021764
  45. genetic variants of TXN and COMT have roles in regulating abdominal obesity PMID: 26329592
  46. Trx1 inhibition results in reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis in Multiple myeloma cells, sensitizes Multiple myeloma cells to the NF-small ka, Cyrillicbeta inhibitors, and also induces apoptosis in bortezomib-resistant myeloma cells. PMID: 25945832
  47. thioredoxin is a remote ischemic preconditioning-induced factor in heart tissue of cardiosurgical patients. PMID: 25622749
  48. Plasma TRX levels of male patients in a manic episode were significantly lower than the controls. PMID: 25297388
  49. the overexpression and nuclear translocation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) are closely associated with hypoxia-drug resistance through the regulation of the metabolism by the oxidative stress response to glycolysis. PMID: 25656992
  50. The crystal structure of fully oxidized thioredoxin shows a non-active Cys62-Cys69 disulfide bond in addition to the active Cys32-Cys35 disulfide. PMID: 26453009

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Subcellular Location Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Secreted.
Protein Families Thioredoxin family
Database Links

HGNC: 12435

OMIM: 187700

KEGG: hsa:7295

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000363641

UniGene: Hs.435136

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