Recommended name: InsulinCleaved into the following 2 chains: 1. Insulin B chain 2. Insulin A chain
Store at -20°C, for extended storage, conserve at -20°C or -80°C.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into two chains (peptide A and peptide B) that are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds. Binding of this mature form of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A variety of mutant alleles with changes in the coding region have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5 region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3 region.
Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.