AMPK signaling

AMPK signaling pathway, a fuel sensor and regulator, promotes ATP-producing and inhibits ATP-consuming pathways in various tissues. AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. Each of these three subunits take on a specific role in both the stability and activity of AMPK. The kinase is activated in response to stresses that deplete cellular ATP supplies such as low glucose, hypoxia, ischemia, and heat shock. As a cellular energy sensor responding to low ATP levels, AMPK activation positively regulates signaling pathways that replenish cellular ATP supplies. For example, activation of AMPK enhances both the transcription and translocation of GLUT4, resulting in an increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The AMPK signaling pathway is one of the most studied signaling pathways and is involved in Lipid metabolism, Glucose transport, Glucose sensing systems and many biological processes.

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