Recombinant Human Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 18 protein(TNFSF18) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002351HU
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Product Details

Purity >98% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity as determined by stimulation of IL-8 production using human PBMC is in a concentration range of 0.1-10 ng/ml.
Target Names TNFSF18
Uniprot No. Q9UNG2
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names Activation inducible TNF related ligand; Activation-inducible TNF-related ligand; AITR ligand; AITRL; GITR ligand; GITRL; Glucocorticoid induced TNF related ligand; Glucocorticoid induced TNFR related protein ligand; Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand; hGITRL; MGC138237; TL6; TNF18_HUMAN; TNFSF18; TNLG2A; Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 18; Tumor necrosis factor ligand 2A; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 18
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 74-199aa
Complete Sequence ETAKEPCMAK FGPLPSKWQM ASSEPPCVNK VSDWKLEILQ NGLYLIYGQV APNANYNDVA PFEVRLYKNK DMIQTLTNKS KIQNVGGTYE LHVGDTIDLI FNSEHQVLKN NTYWGIILLA NPQFIS
Mol. Weight 14.3 kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 m filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF18/AITR/GITR. Regulates T-cell responses. Can function as costimulator and lower the threshold for T-cell activation and T-cell proliferation. Important for interactions between activated T-lymphocytes and endothelial cells. Mediates activation of NF-kappa-B. Triggers increased phosphorylation of STAT1 and up-regulates expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1
Gene References into Functions
  1. GITRL levels are significantly elevated in rheumatoid arthritis serum and synovial fluid and are positively correlated with autoantibody production in rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting a role of GITRL in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 27098050
  2. GITRL modulates the activities of p38 MAPK and STAT3 to promote Th17 cell differentiation in autoimmune arthritis. PMID: 26657118
  3. An increase in GITRL may impair the balance of Th17/Treg, and contribute to the pathopoiesis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID: 25429429
  4. Serum GITRL levels were higher in SLE patients. PMID: 23251213
  5. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF-related ligand (GITRL) confers pseudoexpression to tumor cells by platelets, which results in GITRL expression by megakaryocytes and their platelet progeny. PMID: 22649191
  6. observation suggests a link between cytokine-regulated keratinocyte GITRL expression and its role in inflammatory responses in AD PMID: 22417213
  7. GITRL upregulation induced by IFN-beta on dendritic cells downregulates CTLA-4 on regulatory T (Treg) cells, facilitating proliferation of anergic Treg cells in multiple sclerosis treatment of multiple sclerosis patients. PMID: 22112394
  8. GITRL expression on Kupffer cells may mediate acute rejection in liver transplantation PMID: 21693309
  9. The incorporation of an isoleucine zipper motif could markedly improve the costimulation of hsGITRL. PMID: 20228835
  10. Upregulation by proinflammatory cytokines suggests GITRL may play important role in ocular immunity. High level of constitutive GITRL expression on photoreceptor inner segments suggests photoreceptors participate in regulation of ocular inflammation. PMID: 15326137
  11. Regulates ossteoclasst genersation and substantiate the major role played by the endothelium in bone physiology. PMID: 16179414
  12. Using a GITRL-transfected cell line, we demonstrate that GITRL promotes NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma production. PMID: 16397134
  13. GITRL could be a potential candidate for regulation of the ocular immune privilege and the balance between immune privilege and inflammation PMID: 16874737
  14. Constitutive expression of GITRL by tumor cells diminishes natural killer cell antitumor immunity. PMID: 17360848
  15. although huGITRL is not capable of alleviating Treg suppression of responder T cells, huGITRL overexpression on monocyte-derived DC enhances their capacity to induce antigen-specific T cell responses PMID: 17449724
  16. These observations raise the possibility that the GITRL-mediated inflammatory activation of macrophages is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. PMID: 17602748
  17. Levels of AITRL were significantly increased in serum of breast cancer patients PMID: 17914571
  18. hGITRL ectodomain displays considerable self-association/dissociation in solution with a dynamic equilibrium between trimeric and monomeric forms over the range of protein concentrations studied. PMID: 18040044
  19. identify multiple oligomeric species of hGITRL that possess distinct kinetics of ERK activation. PMID: 18378892
  20. The strong correlation of tumor incidence and elevated soluble GITRL levels indicates that soluble GITRL is released from cancers in vivo, leading to impaired NK cell immunosurveillance of tumors PMID: 18689545

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Subcellular Location Cell membrane, Single-pass type II membrane protein
Protein Families Tumor necrosis factor family
Tissue Specificity Expressed at high levels in the small intestine, ovary, testis, kidney and endothelial cells.
Database Links

HGNC: 11932

OMIM: 603898

KEGG: hsa:8995

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000385470

UniGene: Hs.248197

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