Recombinant Human Placenta growth factor protein(PGF) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002731HU
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Product Details

Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biologically active as determined by its ability to chemoattract human monocytes using a concentration range of 5.0-50 ng/ml.
Target Names PGF
Uniprot No. P49763
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names D12S1900; Pgf; PGFL; PIGF; Placenta growth factor; Placental growth factor; Placental growth factor; vascular endothelial growth factor related protein; PlGF 2; PlGF; PLGF_HUMAN; PlGF2; SHGC 10760
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.Coli
Expression Region 19-170aa
Mol. Weight 17.3 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Isoform PlGF-2
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4, with 0.02 % Tween-20
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.
Gene References into Functions
  1. low serum level associated with stillbirth PMID: 28714317
  2. sFlt-1/PLGF was positively correlated with the severity of preterm preeclampsia. PMID: 30177039
  3. The relationship between PlGF and preeclampsia differed in women with obesity according to gestational diabetes status, which may suggest different mechanistic pathways to preeclampsia. PMID: 30177064
  4. A contingent strategy of measuring the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at 24-28weeks in women previously selected by clinical factors and uterine artery Doppler enables an accurate prediction of preeclampsia/fetal growth restriction. PMID: 30177066
  5. modest correlation of serum-free PlGF-1 with placental volume and uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index PMID: 28714779
  6. PGF expression may have a role in lymphatic invasion, poorer response to chemotherapy and unfavorable prognosis of patients with serous epithelial ovarian cancer PMID: 29643276
  7. A single measurement of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at third trimester to predict pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation occurring after 34weeks of pregnancy. PMID: 29674192
  8. The levels of sFlt-1, PlGF, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in pre-eclamptic women with an onset at < 32 weeks were sig- ni fi cantly di ff erent from those in women with an onset at >/=32-33 weeks. PMID: 29674208
  9. In urban Mozambican women with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of preeclampsia, low maternal plasma PlGF concentrations are associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially early delivery and stillbirth. PMID: 29523269
  10. An sFlt-1:PlGF ratio above 655 is not predictive of impaired perinatal outcomes, and insufficiently reliable for predicting outcomes in cases with clinical signs of preeclampsia. PMID: 29523274
  11. The maternal sFlt-1 to PlGF ratio in women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy carries prognostic value for the development of preeclampsia. PMID: 29523275
  12. Lower umbilical cord PlGF levels are associated with lower birth weight, deviating fetal growth patterns, and a higher odds of fetal growth retardation. PMID: 28926825
  13. Data suggest that circulating PGF levels fall by nearly one quarter during term labor (but not during elective caesarean section). PMID: 29277266
  14. The cross-talk between tumor-associated macrophages and NSCLC cells via PLGF/Flt-1 and TGFbeta receptor signaling may promote the growth and vascularization of NSCLC. PMID: 29991059
  15. PlGF level showed an inversely proportional effect on the foetal weight. PMID: 28326518
  16. Recombinant hPlGF-2 significantly improved contractile function and reduced LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices with a concomitant increase in capillary and arteriolar density in ischemic myocardium, without aggravating atherosclerosis. PMID: 28397162
  17. these data suggest that PlGF may increase non-small cell lung cancer metastasis through SRp40-mediated mRNA splicing of VEGF. PMID: 28861767
  18. The present study investigated the interplay of VEGF-A165a isoform, the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b, placental growth factor (PIGF) and their receptors, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, on junctional occupancy of VE-cadherin and macromolecular leakage in human endothelial monolayers and the perfused placental microvascular bed. PMID: 29054861
  19. PIGF enhances TLR-signaling upstream of IKK and contributes to an exaggerated pathologic pro-inflammatory state in response to activation of maternal and fetal mononuclear phagocytes by specific TLR agonists PMID: 28635072
  20. Lower PIGF and higher PAPP-A and free beta-hCG levels were found in the fetal circulation of near-term severe preeclamptic pregnancies PMID: 27809614
  21. The early variations of PIGF and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 concentrations in newly pregnant obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (oAPS) may help to detect patients at low risk of placenta-mediated complications (PMC). PMID: 28126966
  22. There is a significant negative correlation between the concentration of sFLt-1 and PIGF in normal pregnancy. PMID: 26434493
  23. knockdown of PIGF in spheroid body cells derived from two gastric cancer cell lines reduced in vitro tumorigenicity and stemness properties of spheroid body cells such as self-renewal ability, colony forming, migratory, and MMPs activities and decreased ability to differentiation and angiogenesis PMID: 27735991
  24. Data showed that sFlt-1/PIGF ratio increases with volume overload and persistent hypoxia after surgery with CHD. PMID: 25388629
  25. Glioma cell-released PIGF can induce Bregs to suppress CD8(+) T cell activities. PMID: 25450457
  26. VEGF/PIGF levels were higher in neonates exposed to pre-eclampsia, and there was a significant negative correlation between birth weight and VEGF/PIGF levels. PMID: 25354293
  27. In chronic kidney patients not yet on dialysis, higher serum level of PIGF are associated with increased mortality, but not cardiovascular events. PMID: 25128974
  28. Soluble flt1 is increased in preeclampsia and is associated with decreased levels of bioactive PIGF. PMID: 24166749
  29. In high-risk patients the sFlt1/PIGF ratio can be used for an individual risk assessment with regard to PE, HELLP syndrome or IUGR. Serial measurements permit a risk-adapted prenatal care of these patients PMID: 24595913
  30. Gene expression revealed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic (PGF), anti-apoptotics (BAG-1, BCL-2), heart development (TNNT2, TNNC1) and extracellular matrix remodelling (MMP-2, MMP-7) genes in SM. PMID: 18805052
  31. In contrast to the effects of hypoxia on PIGF expression in other cells, hypoxia suppresses transcription of PIGF in trophoblasts. Regulation of PIGF transcription under hypoxic conditions is independent of HIF-1. PMID: 19712973
  32. Antibodies to PIGF may possibly be used as angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID: 18466718
  33. Human donor myocardium and biopsies from allografts without fibrin deposits express PIGF. PMID: 19201345
  34. anlalysis of levels of circulating PIGF, SDF-1 and sVCAM-1 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus PMID: 17964973
  35. These data suggest that mechanical stretch of bronchial airway epithelial cells induces iNOS expression and induces PIGF release in an erk1/2 activation-dependent manner. PMID: 17028267
  36. Neither the hyperpermeability in response to simultaneous stimulation of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 nor VEGFR-1-mediated severe inflammation was associated with VEGF-E(NZ7)/PIGF-induced angiogenesis. PMID: 16794222
  37. Overexpression of VEGF but not PIGF exacerbated the lipopolysaccharide-mediated toxic effects, supporting a pathophysiological role for VEGF in mediating the sepsis phenotype. PMID: 16702604
  38. Therapeutically administered human PIGF-1 demonstrates a desirable biological activity for promoting the growth of functionally relevant vasculature in mice. PMID: 16702473
  39. IL-17A, IL-17B, IL-17F and IL-23 in systemic lupus erythematosus patients were examined and the correlation between levels of the investigated cytokines and VEGF, PIGF, as well as number of endothelial cells, was investigated. PMID: 23661335
  40. Maternal serum sFlt-1 and PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients. PMID: 21448460
  41. High PlGF and/or low sFlt-1/PlGF may be used to diagnose Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. PMID: 28552862
  42. In this context, our results demonstrate that D16F7 markedly inhibits chemotaxis and invasiveness of GBM cells and patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) in response to VEGF-A and PlGF, suggesting that VEGFR-1 might represent a suitable target that deserves further investigation for GBM treatment. PMID: 28797294
  43. reduced in preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction PMID: 27865093
  44. Studied serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) as markers for early diagnosis of preeclampsia. PMID: 29267975
  45. A high sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was associated with adverse outcomes and a shorter duration to delivery in early-onset fetal growth restriction. PMID: 28737473
  46. HIV status had no effect on serum level PMID: 28627965
  47. low plasma levels at 19-25 and 26-31 weeks of gestation were independent risk factors for a small placenta at >/=35 weeks PMID: 28613009
  48. Data suggest that expression of PGF is down-regulated in placental trophoblasts from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth retardation compared with control placentas. PMID: 28676532
  49. placental expression not altered by placental dysfunction PMID: 28494189
  50. Report sensitivity of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for diagnosis of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. PMID: 28501276
  51. Data demonstrate that PlGF is effectively expressed in vivo, at least in human colorectal cancer cells, and that its expression is restricted to the areas of the tumors where the highest levels of hypoxia occur. Also, hypoxia activates PlGF expression in cultured lymphatic endothelial cells. PMID: 28427198
  52. In severe cases of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant decrease in PIGF gene expression might contribute to the disease process. PMID: 27483982
  53. Placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor together regulate tumour progression by Increasing tumor vasculature formation in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PMID: 28119994
  54. Altered antiangiogenic state because of altered circulating PlGF leads to Preeclampsia.Ratio of sFlt1/PlGF correlates with Preeclampsia phenotypes. PMID: 27067718
  55. Gestation-adjusted sEng, sFlt-1 and PlGF levels were 11%, 36%, and 30%, respectively, lower in women who later suffered miscarriage compared with unaffected pregnancies. PMID: 27664209
  56. the optimal discrimination cut-off for each cytokine: sVEGFR-1 (2124.5pg/mL), IL-6 (40.2pg/mL), VEGF-A (1060.1pg/mL), Angiopoeintin-2 (913.7pg/mL), uPA (248.1pg/mL), sHER-2/neu (5010pg/mL) and PLGF (93.4pg/mL). For the very first time, a novel cytokine profile associated with cancer metastasis to the paratracheal lymph nodes were reported. PMID: 27599390
  57. The results of this study showed that PlGF expression significantly decreased at recurrence glioblastoma after adiotherapy-temozolomide. PMID: 27566180
  58. From a clinical point of view, PLGF could be considered a valid diagnostic test for the detection of primary and recurrent bladder cancer. In patients with recurrent bladder cancer, plasma PLGF levels can differentiate individuals at risk of tumor recurrence. PMID: 29277778
  59. Lower maternal PlGF concentration is associated with intrapartum fetal compromise and poorer condition of the newborn. Maternal PlGF levels may be useful as a component of a risk stratification tool for intrapartum fetal compromise in apparently 'low risk' term pregnancies prior to labour. PMID: 27871474
  60. Study provides mechanistic and clinical evidence that decreased PLGF levels in the placenta after in utero alcohol exposure are associated to brain angiogenesis defects. Measurement of PLGF levels at birth in the placenta or the fetal blood may serve as a predictive marker for subsequent neurodevelopmental outcomes of exposed fetuses. PMID: 28587682
  61. This effect was reversed by the addition of PlGF neutralising antibody to the conditioned medium. PMID: 27899144
  62. Results show that both FLT1 and PGF are overexpressed in the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of patients with breast cancer. Also, a functional interaction of sFlt1 and PGF was found, suggesting that their overexpression in tumor cells inhibits CTCs entering the peripheral blood. PMID: 27464822
  63. Identify a novel cis-acting sequence (-369 to -320) at the placental growth factor promoter, which was critical for mediating the basal and DLX3/GCM1-dependent PGF promoter activities. PMID: 27996093
  64. Low PlGF identifies small fetuses with significant underlying placental pathology and is a promising tool for antenatal discrimination of fetal growth retardation from fetuses who are constitutionally-small. PMID: 27238707
  65. Serum and urinary sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PLGF ratios in severe preeclampsia patients were significantly higher than those in the mild preeclampsia group, and mild preeclampsia patients were significantly higher than controls. The serum and urinary PLGF levels in severe preeclampsia patients were significantly lower than mild preeclampsia patients, and mild preeclampsia patients had significantly lower PLGF levels than controls PMID: 27834501
  66. ROS activation of the MAPK (ERK-1/2)/Egr-1 pathway is a main player in the regulatory mechanism for cigarette smoke extract-induced PlGF production. Antioxidants could partly abolish these effects. PMID: 27980400
  67. Mechanical stress promotes placental growth factors up regulation in cultured syncytiotrophoblasts. PMID: 27698065
  68. Both the TNF-alpha/IL-10 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios were higher in placental homogenate of early-onset Preeclampsia (PE) than late-onset PE and control groups. The more severe lesions and the imbalance between TNF-alpha/IL-10 and PlGF/sFlt-1 in placentas from early-onset PE allows differentiation of early and late-onset PE and suggests higher placental impairment in early-onset PE PMID: 27315098
  69. PlGF is abundant in the human endometrium, and secreted into the uterine lumen where it mediates functional changes in cellular adhesion with important roles in implantation PMID: 27711226
  70. The preeclampsia group had lower placental growth factor from 18 weeks compared to controls. PMID: 27793555
  71. A strong, novel prospective association was identified between lower concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor measured in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. PMID: 27287686
  72. Women with preeclampsia had lower plasma concentrations of placental growth factor. The uteroplacental arteriovenous differences of placental growth factor were significant in both preeclampsia and control groups. PMID: 27503620
  73. Amniotic fluid PlGF levels in the early second trimester of pregnancy are associated with preterm delivery. PMID: 26634962
  74. PGF concentrations in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid were no different in patients with pre-eclampsia and controls. PMID: 26988336
  75. PlGF blood levels are decreased in women who developed early- or late-onset preeclampsia. PMID: 27983995
  76. serum level associated with severity of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia PMID: 28121958
  77. The hyperosmotic, but not the hypoxic, PlGF gene expression was in part mediated by NFAT5. PMID: 27230578
  78. Higher plasma VEGF/PlGF heterodimer levels were found in preterm neonates with BPD and in those who died in the first 28 days of life, suggesting an important role of this substance in pulmonary vascular development. PMID: 26529476
  79. The aim of this study was to investigate whether psoriasis is related to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and placental growth factor (PLGF) - mediators related to insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. PMID: 27098624
  80. Studies suggest that the activation of NRP-1 by PlGF directly contributes to tumour aggressiveness and to melanoma escape from anti-VEGF-A therapies. PMID: 26846845
  81. results indicated that PlGF knockdown decreased migration and induced apoptosis through PI3K/Akt1 and p38MAPK signal transduction in human adenocarcinoma gastric cell line PMID: 26968576
  82. PLGF enhances OVC cell invasion through MAPK-p38-dependent activation of ZEB2. PMID: 26824454
  83. The direct inverse association between HIF-1alpha and PIGF in serum and placental tissues may be responsible for the low oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, leading to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID: 25545166
  84. Vardenafil induces PlGF expression in HUVEC cells, promoting angiogenesis. PMID: 25736325
  85. soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and placental growth factor as biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease PMID: 26642248
  86. Placental growth factor is a susceptibility gene for nAMD in a Chinese population, providing new evidence to support a biological role of PGF in choroidal neovascularization. PMID: 27064391
  87. Study shows that MiR-543 inhibits translation of MMP7 through binding to the 3'-UTR of MMP7 mRNA in ovarian cancer. PLGF suppresses miR-543, which activates MMP7-mediated cancer invasion. PMID: 26402225
  88. Study found that PLGF and MMP9 levels both significantly increased in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and were strongly correlated. PLGF regulated MMP9 in NSCLC cells, but not vice versa. PMID: 26418253
  89. In patients with acute coronary syndrome, elevated plasma levels of PlGF are associated with the presence of obstructive sleep apnea and with adverse outcomes during short-term follow-up PMID: 26930634
  90. Results show that aqueous humor levels of VEGF-A and PlGF were significantly elevated in the eyes with neovascular glaucoma, and there was a positive correlation between the levels. PMID: 26785251
  91. concentration of these C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor were significantly increased in acute coronary syndrome patients PMID: 26576922
  92. Our results demonstrated the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects of PlGF on HIMECs in IBD through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PlGF/PI3K/Akt signaling may serve as a potential therapeutic target for IBD. PMID: 26775845
  93. Serum PlGF levels were reduced in the pregnant women with PE [pre-eclampsia] and were unrelated to disease severity. PMID: 26205065
  94. This article reviews the current evidence on the clinical utility of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at different points in pregnancy and, accordingly, make a proposal for its clinical implementation. [review] PMID: 26287164
  95. Maternal smoking history appears to stimulate PlGF expression in invasive trophoblasts under oxygenated conditions. PMID: 26214510
  96. PLGF are higher in heart failure patients. PMID: 26699385
  97. we found that overexpression of PLGF in TT cells increased expression of MMP9, while inhibition of PLGF in TT cells decreased expression of MMP9. PMID: 26040765
  98. Changes in circulating concentrations of sFlt-1, PlGF, sEng, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio precede the onset of preeclampsia in systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancies. PMID: 25979720
  99. PLGF in LC cells induced macrophage polarization in vivo, and significantly promoted the growth of LC. PMID: 25961789
  100. elevated PlGF is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease PMID: 25788536

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families PDGF/VEGF growth factor family
Tissue Specificity While the three isoforms are present in most placental tissues, PlGF-2 is specific to early (8 week) placenta and only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas.
Database Links

HGNC: 8893

OMIM: 601121

KEGG: hsa:5228

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000451040

UniGene: Hs.252820

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