Recombinant Human Glucagon(GCG),partial

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Code CSB-YP009315HU
Size US$1298Purchase it in Cusabio online store
(only available for customers from the US)
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names GCG
Uniprot No. P01275
Alternative Names GCG; Glicentin related polypeptide; glicentin-related polypeptide; GLP-1; GLP-1(7-36); GLP-1(7-37); GLP-2; GLP1; GLP1; included; GLP2; GLP2; included; GLUC_HUMAN; Glucagon; Glucagon like peptide 1; glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucagon-like peptide 1; included; Glucagon-like peptide 2; Glucagon-like peptide 2; included; GRPP; OXM; OXY; preproglucagon
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Yeast
Expression Region 53-89aa
Target Protein Sequence HSQGTFTSDYSKYLDSRRAQDFVQWLMNTKRNRNNIA
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 6.4kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 3-7 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Q&A and Customer Reviews

 Q&A
Q:

Is the portion which is tagged a his-tag in this peptide and if it is possible to detection by commercial his-tag ELISA?

A:
Thanks for your question! Our protein contains the his-tag, so it can be used in his-tag Elisa in theory. But we have not verified it by ourself yet, so we can't gurantee.

Target Data

Function Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Plays an important role in initiating and maintaining hyperglycemic conditions in diabetes.; FUNCTION
Gene References into Functions
  1. GPR119 is the oleoyl-lysophosphatidylinositol receptor that is required for GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine cells. PMID: 29883799
  2. RYGB increased circulating bile acids, ileal Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and mTORC1 signaling activity, as well as GLP-1 production in both mice and human subjects. Inhibition of ileal mTORC1 signaling by rapamycin significantly attenuated the stimulation of bile acid secretion, TGR5 expression and GLP-1 synthesis induced by RYGB in lean and diet-induced obese mice. PMID: 29859856
  3. Glucagon role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.[review] PMID: 29024725
  4. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the role of GLP-1 in the protection against oxidative damage and the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway. [review] PMID: 29271910
  5. Study concludes that in healthy subjects, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases cardiac output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work. PMID: 28174344
  6. Chenodeoxycholic acid stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID: 28202805
  7. The results demonstrate that glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin synergistically and additively activate vagal afferent neurons. PMID: 28624122
  8. DPP-4 activity and GLP-1total levels were higher in patients with microvascular complications associated with T2DM. Contrary to expectations, no negative correlation was seen between GLP-1 and DDP-4 levels. This result suggests the possible inefficacy of DDP-4 activity as a marker to predict in vivo degradation of endogenous GLP-1. PMID: 29061224
  9. Data suggest that cAMP acts as amplifier of insulin secretion triggered by Ca2+ elevation in beta-cells; both messengers are also positive modulators of glucagon release from alpha-cells, but in this case cAMP signaling may be the important regulator and Ca2+ signaling has a more permissive role. [REVIEW] PMID: 28466587
  10. This study provides evidence that, in HepG2 cells, GLP-1 may affect cholesterol homeostasis by regulating the expression of miR-758 and ABCA1. PMID: 29453982
  11. This study reports the transition dipole strengths and frequencies of the amyloid beta-sheet amide I mode for the aggregated proteins amyloid-beta1-40, calcitonin, alpha-synuclein, and glucagon. PMID: 28851219
  12. genetic association studies in population in China: Data confirm that an SNP in an intron of SLC47A1 (rs2289669) is associated with hypoglycemic response to metformin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes; differential increases in basal GLP1 plasma levels are also related to this SNP. (SLC47A1 = solute carrier family 47 member 1; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide-1) PMID: 28321905
  13. GLP-2 augmented BRIN BD11 beta-cell proliferation, but was less efficacious in 1.1B4 cells. These data highlight the involvement of GLP-2 receptor signalling in the adaptations to pancreatic islet cell stress. PMID: 28746825
  14. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2) stimulates cancer myofibroblast proliferation, migration and invasion; GLP-2 acts indirectly on epithelial cells partly via increased Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) expression in myofibroblasts. PMID: 28363795
  15. Describe model, in which the release of GIP/GLP-1 is stimulated by glucose in the proximal small intestine, and no differences in the secretion dynamics between healthy individuals and patients with T2D are identified after taking differences in glucose profiles into account. PMID: 28374974
  16. the solvent exposure of the two Phe sites along the glucagon sequence was determined, showing that 4F-Phe6 was fully solvent exposed and 4F-Phe22 was only partially exposed PMID: 28508109
  17. Data suggest that dose/intensity-response relationships exist between exercise intensity and total plasma PYY levels, though the effects on total plasma GLP1 levels and hunger perceptions seem unclear. (PYY = peptide YY ; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1) PMID: 27721013
  18. GLP-2 could be considered an hormone causing positive energy balance, which, however has the role to mitigate the metabolic dysfunctions associated with hyper-adiposity. [review] PMID: 27664588
  19. Studies indicate that nutrient-induced glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was one of the best predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission after Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass (RYGB). PMID: 29040429
  20. Insulin resistance in non-diabetic individuals is associated with raised fasting GLP-1 levels but reduced GLP-1 responses to meal stimulation. PMID: 29097626
  21. Age-dependent human beta cell proliferation induced by glucagon-like peptide 1 and calcineurin signaling PMID: 28920919
  22. Data suggest early peaks in glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon secretion/blood level together trigger exaggerated insulinotropic response (high insulin secretion/level) to eating and consequent hypoglycaemia in patients with postprandial hypoglycaemia as a postoperative complication following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes; this retrospective cohort study was conducted in London. PMID: 28855269
  23. A common variant, i.e., single nucleotide polymorphism rs6741949, in the DPP4 gene interacts with body adiposity and negatively affects glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. PMID: 28750074
  24. Compared with the lean group, the obese group had significantly higher fasting and post-OGTT GIP levels, but similar fasting GLP-1 and significantly lower post-OGTT GLP-1 levels. PMID: 28655715
  25. Hemodialysis improves upper GI symptoms and gastric slow waves in CKD patients. An increase in ghrelin and a decrease in GLP-1 might be involved in the HD-induced improvement in gastric slow waves. PMID: 28566304
  26. Data suggest that, in obesity, serum levels of active GLP1 are down-regulated and serum levels of soluble DPP4 are up-regulated; DPP4 levels correlate negatively with active GLP-1 levels but are positively associated with insulin resistance; thus, DPP4 may be biomarker for insulin resistance. This study was conducted in Malaysia. (GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4) PMID: 28288852
  27. Insulin resistance, postprandial GLP-1 and adaptive immunity are the main predictors of NAFLD in a homogeneous population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID: 27134062
  28. Data suggest that laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) for morbid obesity improves insulin resistance after either fast or slow feeding/eating; these findings suggest a negligible contribution of anorexigenic gut peptides GLP1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and PYY (peptide YY) from intestinal L cells in response to LSG-induced weight loss. PMID: 27022941
  29. L-trp is a luminal regulator of CCK release with effects on gastric emptying, an effect that could be mediated by CCK. L-trp's effect on GLP-1 secretion is only minor. At the doses given, the two amino acids did not affect subjective appetite feelings. PMID: 27875537
  30. rs12104705 CC genotype associated with both general obesity and abdominal obesity in case of new-onset diabetes PMID: 27998387
  31. The effects of GLP-1-based therapies on blood glucose in type 2 diabetics are not mediated through microvascular responses. PMID: 27562916
  32. Endogenous GLP1 is involved in the central regulation of feeding by affecting central responsiveness to palatable food consumption. PMID: 26769912
  33. secretion of oxyntomodulin in patients with type 2 diabetes is significantly impaired. PMID: 27322465
  34. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Analogues Inhibit Proliferation and Increase Apoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer Cells PMID: 28008585
  35. The GLP-1 secretion after 75 g OGTT was impaired in newly diagnosed T2DM patients, inversely proportional to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, and positively correlated with beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. PMID: 26739974
  36. GLP-1 secretion increased in response to inflammatory stimuli in humans, which was associated to parameters of glucose metabolism and best predicted by IL6. PMID: 26842302
  37. Among young and healthy adults, GLP-1 levels are strongly and independently related to body fat mass especially in men, but not body mass index or waist circumference. PMID: 25865948
  38. Glucagon circulates in patients without a pancreas and glucose stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract elicits significant hyperglucagonemia in these patients. PMID: 26672094
  39. There is minor contribution of endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-2 to postprandial lipemia in obese men. PMID: 26752550
  40. Data suggest that endocrine responses differ between jejunal and gastric enteral feeding, with higher peak plasma CCK (cholecystokinin), PYY (peptide YY), and GLP-1/2 (glucagon-like peptides 1/2) concentrations being attained after jejunal feeding. PMID: 26762368
  41. Data suggest that capsaicin, an appetite suppressant dietary supplement (here, administered via intraduodenal infusion), does not act via alteration of secretion of satiety hormones GLP-1 (GLP-1) and PYY (peptide YY). PMID: 26718419
  42. Data show that NCI-H716 cells were immunostained for tumor necrosis factor receptor TNFR1, and TNFalpha treatment enhances glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. PMID: 26270730
  43. active GLP-1 produced in the islet stimulates cholecystokinin production and secretion in a paracrine manner via cyclic AMP and CREB. PMID: 25984632
  44. Data suggest that secretion of insulin and glucagon is up-regulated in subjects with type 2 diabetes with dyssomnia as compared to subjects with type 2 diabetes without dyssomnia; those with dyssomnia exhibit prehypertension and insulin resistance. PMID: 25957006
  45. no association of single nucleotide polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility in Chinese population PMID: 25863010
  46. Data suggest plasma GLP1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and PYY (peptide YY) can be regulated by digestion-resistant diet factors; intake of soluble dietary fiber (prebiotic Fibersol-2) in a tea with meal up-regulated plasma GLP1/PYY and decreased hunger. PMID: 25823991
  47. Glucagon has emerged as a key hormone for the regulation of glucose homeostasis and for development of type 2 diabetes. [Review] PMID: 25814364
  48. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na(+)-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores PMID: 26571400
  49. The actions of GLP-2 are transduced by the GLP-2 receptor [GLP-2R], which is localized in the neurons of the enteric nervous system but not in the intestinal epithelium. PMID: 25218018
  50. GLP-1 increases PGC-1(alpha) expression by downregulating miR-23a in liver cells. PMID: 26315270
  51. attenuation of the GLP-1 synthesis rhythms may be important to understand the impairment of food intake regulation in overweight/obese subjects PMID: 25543251
  52. Low serum GLP-1 is correlated with oxidative stress and related to the development of cardiac disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 25595459
  53. Data suggest plasma GLP1 levels, both fasting and postprandial, are down-regulated in subjects with well-controlled type 1 diabetes (T1DM) as compared to healthy control subjects; men with T1DM exhibit higher postprandial GLP1 than women with T1DM. PMID: 25005458
  54. GLP-1 cleavage product GLP-1(9-36)(amide) reverses the hyperglycemia induced persistent left shift of the glucose concentration-reactive oxygen species (ROS) dose-response curve, thereby normalizing persistent overproduction of ROS and its consequences. PMID: 26294429
  55. GLP-1-immunopositive neurons are located within the dorsal medullary region containing the caudal (visceral) nucleus of the solitary tract and in the nearby medullary reticular formation. PMID: 24510283
  56. Data indicate that levels of intact glucagon-like peptide-1 (glp-1) are an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Indonesian population. PMID: 25427660
  57. Lower levels of fasting GLP-1 and impaired glucagon suppression in adult offspring exposed to maternal diabetes during pregnancy are diabetogenic traits that may contribute to glucose intolerance in these persons PMID: 25781355
  58. TNFa decreases GLP-2 expression by up-regulating GPR120 in Crohn disease PMID: 25447053
  59. Eating speed at breakfast did not affect postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, and fullness values or daily energy and macronutrient intake. PMID: 25361054
  60. Biological activities of GLP-1 include stimulation of insulin biosynthesis and glucose-dependent insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cell, inhibition of glucagon secretion, delay of gastric emptying and inhibition of food intake. Review. PMID: 25437458
  61. The participation of GLP-1 in osmoregulation is supported by the increase in its blood concentration in response to water consumption.New function of GLP-1 is its participation in the regu- lation of the water-salt metabolism. PMID: 25560206
  62. via a GLP-1-mediated mechanism, roux en y gastric bypass for obesity rapidly reverses obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and restores the endothelium-protective properties of HDL. PMID: 25673670
  63. Data suggest that acute intravenous administration of GLP1 leads to increased cardiac output due to simultaneous increases in stroke volume and heart rate, whereas no effect on renal hemodynamics was detected. PMID: 25670826
  64. Data show that Ile(196), Met(233) and Asn(302) of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) interact with His(1) and Thr(7) of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). PMID: 25561730
  65. Data suggest secretion of GLP1 and PYY (peptide YY) can be altered by diet; here, plasma levels of GLP1/PYY are increased during postprandial period following meal using Paleolithic diet principles (high in protein/plant matter; no cereals/dairy). PMID: 25661189
  66. The administration of mosapride citrate for 2 weeks enhanced postprandial plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels. PMID: 25008428
  67. These data demonstrate glucose-regulated secretion of PP and its effects on glucagon release through PPYR1 receptors expressed by alpha-cells. PMID: 25445712
  68. Fasting plasma levels of GLP1 are significantly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in healthy young adults. PMID: 25452475
  69. Data suggest that short-term fasting (severe caloric restriction) dramatically down-regulates plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in men with type 2 diabetes; this occurs without a significant change in plasma glucagon. PMID: 25458830
  70. GS and HG might regulate different pathways of GLP-1 production in diabetes PMID: 24648662
  71. Glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion is deficient in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID: 24489924
  72. Report gastrointestinal GLP-2 receptor andl limited utility of GLP-2 in the management of inflammatory intestinal disorders. PMID: 24875097
  73. Data suggest that insulin secretion is down-regulated by aging and diabetes type 2 exacerbates this condition; secretion of adiponectin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (derived from glucagon) are also down-regulated. PMID: 24854384
  74. findings show genetic polymorphism in rs12104705 of GCG may interact with smoking and physical activity to modify the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese PMID: 24185078
  75. Data from studies in healthy Japanese men suggest that plasma GLP1 levels in postprandial period are, on statistical basis, independent of fat content of meals of ordinary size (here, the amount of additional fat was relatively small). PMID: 24507870
  76. Dietary fructose elicits GLP-1 secretion without simultaneous release of glucagonotropic GIP. PMID: 24525020
  77. Label-free detection of insulin and glucagon within human islets of Langerhans using Raman spectroscopy. PMID: 24167603
  78. GLP1 reduces contractions in human colon circular muscle. PMID: 24443715
  79. Circulating GLP-1 was found to be positivity associated with coronary atherosclerosis in humans. PMID: 23953602
  80. DPP-4-sensitive glucose-lowering mechanism contributes to glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients that may be not mediated by circulating GLP-1. PMID: 24296715
  81. GLP-1 alters protein networks in cytokine-exposed human islets while protecting them against cytokine-mediated cell death and dysfunction. PMID: 23937086
  82. These data indicate that endogenous GLP-1 has effects on glucose metabolism and on gastrointestinal motility years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID: 24089513
  83. Blood levels of GLP1 as a marker for blood glucose control following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are discussed. PMID: 24464714
  84. Secondary benefits in addition to efficacy may make GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors a more favorable option than other second-line T2DM therapies. PMID: 23548652
  85. GLP1 follows nucleation-dependent aggregation, whereas GLP2 forms amyloids without any significant lag time. PMID: 24236650
  86. The molecular mechanisms & intracellular pathways involved in cardioprotection induced by GLP-1 and its therapeutic implications are reviewed. Review. PMID: 23031433
  87. glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY colocalize in primary cultured human L cells PMID: 23519462
  88. The diagnostic accuracy of the tumor markers CgA, PP, and glucagon for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is low. PMID: 23956349
  89. In type 2 diabetes, GLP-1 secretion is generally preserved and that GIP secretion is exaggerated. PMID: 23864340
  90. Data from triple-tracer approach describe fluctuations in postprandial circulating levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon due to moderate-intensity physical activity; a biological model is proposed to account for such fluctuations. PMID: 23820621
  91. Data suggest that patients with type 2 diabetes do not exhibit reduced GLP-1 secretion in response to an oral glucose tolerance test or meal test; deteriorating glycemic control may be associated with reduced GLP-1 secretion. [META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW] PMID: 23377698
  92. Pre-treatment of the system with Akt inhibitor IV, Bisindolylmaleimide (PKC inhibitor) and src inhibitor I resulted in a significant decrease of the GLP-1 induced angiogenesis PMID: 23684008
  93. Obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) had lower mean GLP-1 levels than those without MS. PMID: 22534628
  94. Data suggest that postprandial plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are increased after consumption of buckwheat crackers versus rice crackers in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. PMID: 23485142
  95. With G9a and GLP1 as representative Protein methyltransferases (PMTs), it demonstrated the use of methionine analogues, a MAT variant and engineered PMTs for substrate labeling in vitro and genome-wide chromatin modifications within living cells. PMID: 23244065
  96. Data suggest that plasma GLP-1 increases more after high-fat meal rather than after high-carbohydrate meal; plasma GLP-1 is negatively associated with hunger in the late satiety phase and with energy intake. PMID: 23509106
  97. we aim to integrate the available data on the metabolic and neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 mimetics in the central nervous system (CNS) with the complex crosstalk between T2D-AD PMID: 23314196
  98. Data show that in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus an enhanced GLP-1 response to meal intake is not sufficient to maintain normal glucose tolerance in the long term after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID: 23579541
  99. GLP-1-mediated changes in hdl-cholesterol are likely due to changes in hepatic expression of apo-A1 and ABCA1. PMID: 22901716
  100. the GPRC6A receptor functions as an amino acid sensor in GLUTag cells that promotes GLP-1 secretion PMID: 23269670

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Glucagon family
Tissue Specificity Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.
Database Links

HGNC: 4191

OMIM: 138030

KEGG: hsa:2641

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000387662

UniGene: Hs.516494

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