Human growth differentiation factor 15(GDF15)ELISA Kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E12009h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
Trial Size 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Description

The Human growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) ELISA Kit manufactured by CUSABIO is applied to quantitatively determinate GDF15 concentrations in human serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, or urine. The detection mechanism is based on the sandwich ELISA technique and enzyme-substrate chromogenic reaction. The solution color develops in proportion to the amount of GDF15 in the sample. And the intensity of the color can be measured by a microplate reader at 450 nm. This kit can help to streamline the experiment and get ideal results due to its high sensitivity, excellent specificity, good linearity, precision less than 10%, high recovery, and lot-to-lot consistency.

GDF15, also called macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is widely expressed in multiple mammalian tissues. It is a stress-induced cytokine expressed in response to tissue injury. GDF15 serum levels are closely related to various diseases, including inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. It may potentially serve as a reliable predictor of disease progression. Peder L. Myhre etc. demonstrated that GDF15 is increased in the majority of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, and higher levels are related to SARS-CoV-2 viremia, hypoxemia, and worse outcome. The prognostic importance of GDF15 was additional and superior to established cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers.

Target Name growth differentiation factor 15
Alternative Names GDF 15 ELISA Kit; GDF-15 ELISA Kit; Gdf15 ELISA Kit; GDF15_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Growth differentiation factor 15 ELISA Kit; Growth/differentiation factor 15 ELISA Kit; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 ELISA Kit; MIC 1 ELISA Kit; Mic-1 ELISA Kit; MIC1 ELISA Kit; NAG 1 ELISA Kit; NAG-1 ELISA Kit; NAG1 ELISA Kit; NRG 1 ELISA Kit; NRG-1 ELISA Kit; NRG1 ELISA Kit; NSAID (nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug) activated protein 1 ELISA Kit; NSAID ELISA Kit; NSAID regulated protein 1 ELISA Kit; NSAID-activated gene 1 protein ELISA Kit; NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein ELISA Kit; PDF ELISA Kit; PLAB ELISA Kit; Placental bone morphogenetic protein ELISA Kit; Placental bone morphogenic protein ELISA Kit; Placental TGF beta ELISA Kit; Placental TGF-beta ELISA Kit; Prostate differentiation factor ELISA Kit; PTGF beta ELISA Kit; PTGFB ELISA Kit
Abbreviation GDF15
Uniprot No. Q99988
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, urine
Detection Range 7.8 pg/mL-500 pg/mL
Sensitivity 1.95 pg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Signal Transduction
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human GDF15 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
 SampleSerum(n=4)
1:1Average %89
Range %80-91
1:2Average %98
Range %91-104
1:4Average %97
Range %90-105
1:8Average %95
Range %91-100
Recovery
The recovery of human GDF15 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9286-99
EDTA plasma (n=4)9791-105
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
pg/mlOD1OD2AverageCorrected
5001.756 1.737 1.747 1.601
2501.134 1.142 1.138 0.992
1250.702 0.719 0.711 0.565
62.50.465 0.450 0.458 0.312
31.20.337 0.349 0.343 0.197
15.60.266 0.272 0.269 0.123
7.80.192 0.203 0.198 0.052
00.145 0.147 0.146  
Materials provided
  • A micro ELISA plate ---The 96-well plate has been pre-coated with an anti-human GDF15 antibody. This dismountable microplate can be divided into 12 x 8 strip plates.
  • Two vials lyophilized standard ---Dilute a bottle of the standard at dilution series, read the OD values, and then draw a standard curve.
  • One vial Biotin-labeled GDF15 antibody (100 x concentrate) (120 μl/bottle) ---Act as the detection antibody.
  • One vial HRP-avidin (100 x concentrate) (120 μl/bottle) ---Bind to the detection antibody and react with the TMB substrate to make the solution chromogenic.
  • One vial Biotin-antibody Diluent (15 ml/bottle) ---Dilute the Biotin-antibody.
  • One vial HRP-avidin Diluent (15 ml/bottle) ---Dilute the HRP-avidin solution.
  • One vial Sample Diluent (50 ml/bottle)---Dilute the sample to an appropriate concentration.
  • One vial Wash Buffer (25 x concentrate) (20 ml/bottle) ---Wash away unbound or free substances.
  • One vial TMB Substrate (10 ml/bottle) ---Act as the chromogenic agent. TMB interacts with HRP, eliciting the solution turns blue.
  • One vial Stop Solution (10 ml/bottle) ---Stop the color reaction. The solution color immediately turns from blue to yellow.
  • Four Adhesive Strips (For 96 wells) --- Cover the microplate when incubation.
  • An instruction manual
Materials not provided
  • A microplate reader capable of measuring absorbance at 450 nm, with the correction wavelength set at 540 nm or 570 nm.
  • An incubator can provide stable incubation conditions up to 37°C±5°C.
  • Centrifuge
  • Vortex
  • Squirt bottle, manifold dispenser, or automated microplate washer
  • Absorbent paper for blotting the microtiter plate
  • 50-300ul multi-channel micropipette
  • Pipette tips
  • Single-channel micropipette with different ranges
  • 100ml and 500ml graduated cylinders
  • Deionized or distilled water
  • Timer
  • Test tubes for dilution
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

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Target Background

Gene References into Functions
  1. Data indicate that LINC01133 inhibited OSCC metastasis via a feedback regulation loop of reciprocal inhibition with GDF15. PMID: 30332510
  2. Our results provide valuable evidence that GDF15 is related with first-line chemo-resistance, with highly expressed GDF15 being a strong and an independent indicator of shorter PFS in EOC patients. PMID: 29580231
  3. Placenta and appetite genes GDF15 and IGFBP7 are associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID: 29563502
  4. These results suggest that upregulation of NAG-1 contributes to trichostatin A-induced apoptosis in human endometriotic stromal cells. PMID: 29157123
  5. GDF-15 is a promising biomarker for prediction of HF and death due to CHD in the general population, which may provide prognostic information to already established clinical biomarkers. PMID: 29771963
  6. the association between GDF-15 and contrast-induced nephropathy in acute myocardial infarction patients after percutaneous coronary intervention PMID: 29791474
  7. Age-dependent GDF-15 centile values developed from a population of apparently healthy older adults are independently predictive of all-cause mortality PMID: 29714603
  8. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of cytokine GDF-15 presence in follicular fluid. Its concentration was not associated with donor/patient fertility status. Our data also show that GDF-15 is expressed and inducible in both normal healthy and cancerous granulosa cells, as well as in oocytes PMID: 29948426
  9. Findings indicate that global platelet function was positively correlated with serum GDF-15 concentration. PMID: 28597461
  10. GDF-15 in blood is more accurate in differentiating pancreatic mass due to chronic pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma than Ca19-9. the combination of GDF-15 with Ca125 is remarkably useful in differentiating pancreatic mass. PMID: 29171983
  11. Our results show GDF-15 as an effective biomarker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer PMID: 29400662
  12. This study found that the mean serum GDF15 levels in the Parkinson Disease patients were significantly higher than those of the healthy control group. Secondly, in the Parkinson Disease patients, the GDF15 levels were significantly higher in the men than in the women. PMID: 28787735
  13. Elevated GDF-15 correlates with lack of reverse remodeling and increased mortality after TAVR and improves risk prediction of mortality. PMID: 29222133
  14. Initial serum GDF15 level showed an inverse correlation with serum glomerular filtration rate and was associated with worse renal outcome in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. PMID: 28869715
  15. data reveal that YAP promotes metastasis of breast cancer cells by repressing GDF15 transcription and present a novel molecular mechanism underlying the pro-metastasis function of YAP oncoprotein, with the implication of a therapeutic avenue for breast cancer treatment. PMID: 29499325
  16. GDF15 was significantly correlated with mitochondrial disease severity and the proportion of ragged-red fibers identified in skeletal muscle. PMID: 27889897
  17. GDF-15 serum levels were elevated in patients with Systemic sclerosis and correlated with the extent of skin fibrosis, and it was found to be higher in Systemic sclerosis patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis PMID: 28872977
  18. Enhanced radiosensitivity and decreased migration in cells caused by CDP138 knockdown are partially dependent on GDF15 inhibition. PMID: 28880265
  19. these results suggest that increased GDF-15-as observed in lungs of smokers and patients with COPD-contributes to cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMID: 28145442
  20. High GDF15 levels are associated with increased risk of major amputation and/or death in peripheral arterial disease patients. PMID: 28855167
  21. we found that GDF-15 -3148C/G polymorphism (CC genotype) might have a correlation with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurrence and the formation of collateral circulation. PMID: 29489980
  22. Data show that serum growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15)levels were significantly higher in subjects with thyroid nodules compared with nodule negative subjects, and this was influenced by age. PMID: 28489602
  23. Findings suggest that GDF15 induces tumor sphere formation through GDF15-ERK1/2-GDF15 circuits, leading to maintenance of GDF15high cancer stem-like cells. PMID: 28206960
  24. These authors demonstrate that blocking cardiomyocyte production of GDF15 normalizes circulating GDF15 level and restores liver growth hormone signaling, establishing GDF15 as a bona fide heart-derived hormone that regulates pediatric body growth. PMID: 28572090
  25. Authors demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. Authors further showed that GDF15 facilitated the conversion of cancer stemness, as assessed by the promotion of CD44+ and ALDH1+ cell populations and spheroid cell formation. PMID: 27903972
  26. this study, for the first time, demonstrates that GDF15 is a promising target for preventing cold I/R injury in heart transplantation. This study also shows that the resultant protective effects are mediated by the Foxo3 and NFkappaB signaling pathways PMID: 28388574
  27. High circulating GDF-15 levels are predictive of secondary cardiovascular events in women but not in men with carotid atherosclerosis. PMID: 28389123
  28. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high levels of GDF15 were independently associated with a higher yearly rate of exacerbations, higher mortality and increased decline in both FEV1 and FVC. PMID: 28298399
  29. Data suggested NAG-1 protein as a crucial mediator of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression and resistance to the standard first-line chemotherapy against EOC, particularly in MyD88-positive ovarian cancer stem-like cells. PMID: 27708225
  30. The GDF-15 gene rs1804826G/T polymorphism and sGDF-15 levels are associated with ischemic stroke in the Chinese population. PMID: 28526273
  31. NSAID-activated gene 1 (NAG-1) has been assessed for its involvement in cellular integrity and pathogenesis in mucosal inflammation and carcinogenesis. [review] PMID: 28455268
  32. showed association between high level of GDF-15, determined at the first 24 hours after acute coronary syndrome, and chronic heart failure progression after 12 months. PMID: 29099703
  33. Results provide evidence that GDF15 contributes to the cancer-associated fibroblasts-mediated chemoprotection of AML cells. PMID: 27643489
  34. serum GDF15 was not altered in the first trimester in women destined to develop late-onset preeclampsia. PMID: 27173615
  35. even very small amounts of contaminating TGF-b in purified protein batches may influence the experimental results given that receptors for TGF-b are present. When we attempted to characterize possible receptors for the TGF-b superfamily ligand GDF15, striking similarities between GDF15-induced activities and known TGF-b activities were found. PMID: 29161287
  36. In ever-smokers with COPD free of clinical CVD, GDF-15 contributes independently to subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00608764 . Registered 28 January 2008. PMID: 28245821
  37. This is the first study showing that adolescent male swimmers have higher PTX3 levels than sedentary controls and that there is a linear relationship between PTX3 and GDF-15. PMID: 28664745
  38. GDF-15 at 1 month after an acute coronary syndrome is related to the risk of bleeding during dual antiplatelet therapy and provides additional information on the bleeding risk beyond baseline GDF-15 levels. PMID: 28411246
  39. NF-kappaB/GDF-15 regulatory axis is important for tumor cells in evading macrophage immune surveillance during the early stages of tumorigenesis PMID: 28891811
  40. Our data indicated that GDF-15 plays an important role in iron metabolism in SAA. GDF-15 might be a novel target for SAA therapy. PMID: 28385068
  41. These results suggest that rs1054564 confers allele-specific translational repression of GDF15 via hsa-miR-1233-3p. PMID: 28806401
  42. Serum MIC-1 levels in PUL were not able to categorically diagnose EP, however, MIC-1 could distinguish women with an EP that required medical intervention and those women whose PULs spontaneously resolved PMID: 23824055
  43. HIF-1alpha and GDF15 expression are inversely related under normoxia and hyperoxia. PMID: 28734801
  44. PPIX concentrations correlated with both growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 (p = 0.012) and male gender (p = 0.015). PMID: 28185024
  45. Data show that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) knockdown significantly inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer stem-like sphere cells (SCs) through AKT/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin pathway suppression. PMID: 28199981
  46. epithelial restitution was promoted by enhanced NAG-1 expression and subsequent enterocyte locomotion during the early wound-healing process PMID: 27421482
  47. serum GDF15 may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer. PMID: 26990020
  48. These findings highlight an important contribution of GDF15 in promoting airway epithelial senescence upon cigarette smoke exposure. PMID: 27093475
  49. The results of this study, including a robust induction of GDF-15 expression by several external factors known to elevate IOP, and rGDF-15-induced increase in contractility, cell adhesion, and the levels of ECM proteins and alphaSMA in TM cells PMID: 27918822
  50. GDF-15 captures distinct aspects of cardiovascular disease development, progression, and prognosis, which are not represented by clinical risk predictors and other biomarkers. The usefulness of GDF-15 to guide management decisions and discover new treatment targets should be further explored. PMID: 28062617

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families TGF-beta family
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney (PubMed:9348093). Detected in plasma (at protein level) (PubMed:28572090, PubMed:29046435).
Database Links

HGNC: 30142

OMIM: 605312

KEGG: hsa:9518

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000252809

UniGene: Hs.616962

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