Recombinant Human Growth/differentiation factor 15(GDF15),partial

Code CSB-YP859530HU
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Source Yeast
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Code CSB-EP859530HU-B
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Source E.coli
Conjugate Avi-tag Biotinylated
E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) is highly specific in covalently attaching biotin to the 15 amino acid AviTag peptide. This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag.
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Code CSB-BP859530HU
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Source Baculovirus
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Code CSB-MP859530HU
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Source Mammalian cell
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names GDF15
Uniprot No. Q99988
Research Area Cardiovascular
Alternative Names GDF 15; GDF-15; Gdf15; GDF15_HUMAN; Growth differentiation factor 15; Growth/differentiation factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; MIC 1; Mic-1; MIC1; NAG 1; NAG-1; NAG1; NRG 1; NRG-1; NRG1; NSAID (nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug) activated protein 1; NSAID; NSAID regulated protein 1; NSAID-activated gene 1 protein; NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein; PDF; PLAB; Placental bone morphogenetic protein; Placental bone morphogenic protein; Placental TGF beta; Placental TGF-beta; Prostate differentiation factor; PTGF beta; PTGFB
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region 198-308aa
Mol. Weight 14.2kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info The following tags are available.
N-terminal His-tagged
The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
Form Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer before Lyophilization Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Regulates food intake, energy expenditure and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses. Binds to its receptor, GFRAL, and activates GFRAL-expressing neurons localized in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. It then triggers the activation of neurons localized within the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala, which constitutes part of the 'emergency circuit' that shapes feeding responses to stressful conditions. On hepatocytes, inhibits growth hormone signaling.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Data indicate that LINC01133 inhibited OSCC metastasis via a feedback regulation loop of reciprocal inhibition with GDF15. PMID: 30332510
  2. Our results provide valuable evidence that GDF15 is related with first-line chemo-resistance, with highly expressed GDF15 being a strong and an independent indicator of shorter PFS in EOC patients. PMID: 29580231
  3. Placenta and appetite genes GDF15 and IGFBP7 are associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID: 29563502
  4. These results suggest that upregulation of NAG-1 contributes to trichostatin A-induced apoptosis in human endometriotic stromal cells. PMID: 29157123
  5. GDF-15 is a promising biomarker for prediction of HF and death due to CHD in the general population, which may provide prognostic information to already established clinical biomarkers. PMID: 29771963
  6. the association between GDF-15 and contrast-induced nephropathy in acute myocardial infarction patients after percutaneous coronary intervention PMID: 29791474
  7. Age-dependent GDF-15 centile values developed from a population of apparently healthy older adults are independently predictive of all-cause mortality PMID: 29714603
  8. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of cytokine GDF-15 presence in follicular fluid. Its concentration was not associated with donor/patient fertility status. Our data also show that GDF-15 is expressed and inducible in both normal healthy and cancerous granulosa cells, as well as in oocytes PMID: 29948426
  9. Findings indicate that global platelet function was positively correlated with serum GDF-15 concentration. PMID: 28597461
  10. GDF-15 in blood is more accurate in differentiating pancreatic mass due to chronic pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma than Ca19-9. the combination of GDF-15 with Ca125 is remarkably useful in differentiating pancreatic mass. PMID: 29171983
  11. Our results show GDF-15 as an effective biomarker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer PMID: 29400662
  12. This study found that the mean serum GDF15 levels in the Parkinson Disease patients were significantly higher than those of the healthy control group. Secondly, in the Parkinson Disease patients, the GDF15 levels were significantly higher in the men than in the women. PMID: 28787735
  13. Elevated GDF-15 correlates with lack of reverse remodeling and increased mortality after TAVR and improves risk prediction of mortality. PMID: 29222133
  14. Initial serum GDF15 level showed an inverse correlation with serum glomerular filtration rate and was associated with worse renal outcome in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. PMID: 28869715
  15. data reveal that YAP promotes metastasis of breast cancer cells by repressing GDF15 transcription and present a novel molecular mechanism underlying the pro-metastasis function of YAP oncoprotein, with the implication of a therapeutic avenue for breast cancer treatment. PMID: 29499325
  16. GDF15 was significantly correlated with mitochondrial disease severity and the proportion of ragged-red fibers identified in skeletal muscle. PMID: 27889897
  17. GDF-15 serum levels were elevated in patients with Systemic sclerosis and correlated with the extent of skin fibrosis, and it was found to be higher in Systemic sclerosis patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis PMID: 28872977
  18. Enhanced radiosensitivity and decreased migration in cells caused by CDP138 knockdown are partially dependent on GDF15 inhibition. PMID: 28880265
  19. these results suggest that increased GDF-15-as observed in lungs of smokers and patients with COPD-contributes to cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMID: 28145442
  20. High GDF15 levels are associated with increased risk of major amputation and/or death in peripheral arterial disease patients. PMID: 28855167
  21. we found that GDF-15 -3148C/G polymorphism (CC genotype) might have a correlation with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurrence and the formation of collateral circulation. PMID: 29489980
  22. Data show that serum growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15)levels were significantly higher in subjects with thyroid nodules compared with nodule negative subjects, and this was influenced by age. PMID: 28489602
  23. Findings suggest that GDF15 induces tumor sphere formation through GDF15-ERK1/2-GDF15 circuits, leading to maintenance of GDF15high cancer stem-like cells. PMID: 28206960
  24. These authors demonstrate that blocking cardiomyocyte production of GDF15 normalizes circulating GDF15 level and restores liver growth hormone signaling, establishing GDF15 as a bona fide heart-derived hormone that regulates pediatric body growth. PMID: 28572090
  25. Authors demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. Authors further showed that GDF15 facilitated the conversion of cancer stemness, as assessed by the promotion of CD44+ and ALDH1+ cell populations and spheroid cell formation. PMID: 27903972
  26. this study, for the first time, demonstrates that GDF15 is a promising target for preventing cold I/R injury in heart transplantation. This study also shows that the resultant protective effects are mediated by the Foxo3 and NFkappaB signaling pathways PMID: 28388574
  27. High circulating GDF-15 levels are predictive of secondary cardiovascular events in women but not in men with carotid atherosclerosis. PMID: 28389123
  28. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high levels of GDF15 were independently associated with a higher yearly rate of exacerbations, higher mortality and increased decline in both FEV1 and FVC. PMID: 28298399
  29. Data suggested NAG-1 protein as a crucial mediator of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression and resistance to the standard first-line chemotherapy against EOC, particularly in MyD88-positive ovarian cancer stem-like cells. PMID: 27708225
  30. The GDF-15 gene rs1804826G/T polymorphism and sGDF-15 levels are associated with ischemic stroke in the Chinese population. PMID: 28526273
  31. NSAID-activated gene 1 (NAG-1) has been assessed for its involvement in cellular integrity and pathogenesis in mucosal inflammation and carcinogenesis. [review] PMID: 28455268
  32. showed association between high level of GDF-15, determined at the first 24 hours after acute coronary syndrome, and chronic heart failure progression after 12 months. PMID: 29099703
  33. Results provide evidence that GDF15 contributes to the cancer-associated fibroblasts-mediated chemoprotection of AML cells. PMID: 27643489
  34. serum GDF15 was not altered in the first trimester in women destined to develop late-onset preeclampsia. PMID: 27173615
  35. even very small amounts of contaminating TGF-b in purified protein batches may influence the experimental results given that receptors for TGF-b are present. When we attempted to characterize possible receptors for the TGF-b superfamily ligand GDF15, striking similarities between GDF15-induced activities and known TGF-b activities were found. PMID: 29161287
  36. In ever-smokers with COPD free of clinical CVD, GDF-15 contributes independently to subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:, NCT00608764 . Registered 28 January 2008. PMID: 28245821
  37. This is the first study showing that adolescent male swimmers have higher PTX3 levels than sedentary controls and that there is a linear relationship between PTX3 and GDF-15. PMID: 28664745
  38. GDF-15 at 1 month after an acute coronary syndrome is related to the risk of bleeding during dual antiplatelet therapy and provides additional information on the bleeding risk beyond baseline GDF-15 levels. PMID: 28411246
  39. NF-kappaB/GDF-15 regulatory axis is important for tumor cells in evading macrophage immune surveillance during the early stages of tumorigenesis PMID: 28891811
  40. Our data indicated that GDF-15 plays an important role in iron metabolism in SAA. GDF-15 might be a novel target for SAA therapy. PMID: 28385068
  41. These results suggest that rs1054564 confers allele-specific translational repression of GDF15 via hsa-miR-1233-3p. PMID: 28806401
  42. Serum MIC-1 levels in PUL were not able to categorically diagnose EP, however, MIC-1 could distinguish women with an EP that required medical intervention and those women whose PULs spontaneously resolved PMID: 23824055
  43. HIF-1alpha and GDF15 expression are inversely related under normoxia and hyperoxia. PMID: 28734801
  44. PPIX concentrations correlated with both growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 (p = 0.012) and male gender (p = 0.015). PMID: 28185024
  45. Data show that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) knockdown significantly inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer stem-like sphere cells (SCs) through AKT/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin pathway suppression. PMID: 28199981
  46. epithelial restitution was promoted by enhanced NAG-1 expression and subsequent enterocyte locomotion during the early wound-healing process PMID: 27421482
  47. serum GDF15 may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer. PMID: 26990020
  48. These findings highlight an important contribution of GDF15 in promoting airway epithelial senescence upon cigarette smoke exposure. PMID: 27093475
  49. The results of this study, including a robust induction of GDF-15 expression by several external factors known to elevate IOP, and rGDF-15-induced increase in contractility, cell adhesion, and the levels of ECM proteins and alphaSMA in TM cells PMID: 27918822
  50. GDF-15 captures distinct aspects of cardiovascular disease development, progression, and prognosis, which are not represented by clinical risk predictors and other biomarkers. The usefulness of GDF-15 to guide management decisions and discover new treatment targets should be further explored. PMID: 28062617

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Subcellular Location Secreted.
Protein Families TGF-beta family
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in placenta, with lower levels in prostate and colon and some expression in kidney. Detected in plasma (at protein level).
Database Links

HGNC: 30142

OMIM: 605312

KEGG: hsa:9518

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000252809

UniGene: Hs.616962

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