Recombinant Human T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28(CD28)

Code CSB-CF004913HU
Size Pls inquire other sizes
Source in vitro E.coli expression system
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Product Details

Target Names CD28
Uniprot No. P10747
Alternative Names CD 28; CD28; CD28 antigen; CD28 molecule; CD28_HUMAN; MGC138290; T cell antigen CD28; T cell specific surface glycoprotein; T cell specific surface glycoprotein CD28; T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28; TP44
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region 19-220
Target Protein Sequence NKILVKQSPMLVAYDNAVNLSCKYSYNLFSREFRASLHKGLDSAVEVCVVYGNYSQQLQVYSKTGFNCDGKLGNESVTFYLQNLYVNQTDIYFCKIEVMYPPPYLDNEKSNGTIIHVKGKHLCPSPLFPGPSKPFWVLVVVGGVLACYSLLVTVAFIIFWVRSKRSRLLHSDYMNMTPRRPGPTRKHYQPYAPPRDFAAYRS
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info The following tags are available.
N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer before Lyophilization Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Involved in T-cell activation, the induction of cell proliferation and cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival. Enhances the production of IL4 and IL10 in T-cells in conjunction with TCR/CD3 ligation and CD40L costimulation
Gene References into Functions
  1. The results of this study indicated that the CD28 rs3116496 polymorphism might impact the risk of schizophrenia, especially deficit schizophrenia. PMID: 28673752
  2. CD28 may be a tumor suppressor gene and rs3116496 polymorphism of CD28 gene showed positively correlation with the increased risk of breast cancer. PMID: 29089469
  3. percentage of CD4(+) CD28(null) T-cells was significantly higher in type 1 diabetes patients with and without microvascular complications compared with controls PMID: 28102614
  4. Suggest that genetic polymorphisms of CD28 function as sex-dependent risk factors for development of acute rejection in an Iranian kidney transplant population. PMID: 28031007
  5. the expression of CD28 was lower in both Sjogren's syndrome and systemic sclerosis patients PMID: 27878564
  6. The fraction of CD4(+)CD28(null) cells proved to be predictive on outcome in congestive heart failure-patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. PMID: 27904907
  7. In this study we systematically evaluated a series of CAR constructs targeting glypican-3 (GPC3), which is selectively expressed on several solid tumors. We compared GPC3-specific CARs that encoded CD3zeta (Gz) alone or with costimulatory domains derived from CD28 (G28z), 4-1BB (GBBz), or CD28 and 4-1BB (G28BBz). PMID: 27530312
  8. These preliminary results suggest that patients undergoing liver or kidney transplant can be stratified at high risk of EAR according to their CD28 molecule expression on peripheral CD4(+) T lymphocytes. PMID: 28392336
  9. The rs3116496 (T>C), rs3181098 (G>A) and rs3181100 (G>C) of CD28 were, respectively, found to be correlated with incremental susceptibility to recurrent spontaneous abortion under the allelic model. PMID: 29069644
  10. Coexpression of CD200R-CD28 enhances function in WT1-specific T-cell receptor - transduced human primary T cells. PMID: 29042364
  11. the upregulation of others syncytial molecules, including LAG3, CTLA4, CD28 and CD3, assisting the formation of syncytia with APC cells. PMID: 27108398
  12. our data provide the first evidence of a strict link between the absence of CD28 and the expression of perforin, which is likewise enhanced by the expression of NKG2D, within selected CD4(+) T cells from cervical cancer patients. PMID: 28087292
  13. Mutation of the basic clusters in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain reduced the recruitment to the CD28-Lck complex of protein kinase Ctheta; (PKCtheta;), which serves as a key effector kinase in the CD28 signaling pathway. PMID: 27460989
  14. The mutant CD28 isoforms could accelerate tumor cell growth. PMID: 28711152
  15. identified recurrent mutations in CD28 in peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Molecular modeling studies on each of these mutations suggested how these mutants result in increased affinities. PMID: 26719098
  16. the scaffolding role of RLTPR predominates during CD28 co-stimulation and underpins the similar function of RLTPR in human and mouse T cells. PMID: 27647348
  17. Our data show that mast cells can costimulate human CD4(+) T cells to induce strong T-cell proliferation, but that therapies aiming at disrupting the interaction of CD28 and B7 molecules do not inhibit mast cell mediated T-cell activation. PMID: 26860071
  18. High CD28 Circulating Levels are associated with Breast Cancer. PMID: 27381613
  19. The CTLA4-CD28 gene fusion is likely a major contributor to the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas and represents a potential target for anti-CTLA4 cancer immunotherapy. PMID: 26819049
  20. Following phosphorylation of the tyrosine, the proteins growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), Grb2-related adaptor downstream of Shc (Gads), and p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase may bind to pYMNM (where pY is phosphotyrosine) via their Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, leading to downstream signaling to distinct immune pathways. These three adaptor proteins bind to the same site on CD28 with variable affinity PMID: 27927989
  21. CD28 family receptors are potential clinical indicators for the rapid monitoring of changes in T cell function during CHB treatment. PMID: 27314219
  22. The eQTL mapping analysis revealed that the variations in CD28 and NFKB1 gene content might affect the abundance of transcripts of CD28 and Family with sequence similarity 177 member A1 (FAM177A1) genes, respectively. These results suggest that CD28 and NFKB1 gene variants may be associated with increased risks to IRM. PMID: 27488439
  23. this study shows that CD28 contributes to rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in Egyptian PMID: 27125674
  24. A highly recurrent novel missense mutation in CD28 among angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma patients. PMID: 26405154
  25. These findings indicate that the associations of the CTLA-4 and CD28 polymorphisms with the risk of renal cancer are worth further study in a larger group of patients. PMID: 26403483
  26. expansion of highly differentiated CD28null T cells is associated with a lower risk for early acute rejection after kidney transplantation PMID: 26950734
  27. In patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, the CD4 + CD28null T cell percentage was higher in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome versus those with STEMI. PMID: 26375412
  28. in complex with T cell receptor, promotes glycolysis PMID: 26885860
  29. Data show that CD28 antigen costimulation modulates CD46 antigen surface expression on activated T cells. PMID: 25787182
  30. study also uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Vav1 in crosstalk between the CD28 and TCR signaling pathways PMID: 26043137
  31. Among CD8+ T-lymphocytes, CD28+CD57+ cells represent a subset with some senescent features that are distinct from the CD28-CD57+ cells. PMID: 26277688
  32. The CD28 gene polymorphisms may not only act in immune deregulation observed in schizophrenia, but may also influence the course of the illness by modifying the susceptibility to the co-occurrence of psychotic and affective symptoms PMID: 25998553
  33. CD28 polymorphism, rs3116496, contributes to cancer susceptibility in the case of multiple cancers. PMID: 25534869
  34. The functional decline of invariant natural killer T cells was closely related to the decrease in CD28 expression and the increases of Tim-3 and PD-1. PMID: 26215444
  35. Results showed lower and higher serum levels of CTLA4 and CD28 detected respectively in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC)and found an association of the CTLA4 -318C/T polymorphism in CRC patients. PMID: 26408701
  36. analysis of signaling pathways activated by CD28 during direct cell-cell contact by global analysis of protein phosphorylation PMID: 25829543
  37. Immature dendritic cells convert anergic nonregulatory T cells into Foxp3- IL-10+ regulatory T cells by engaging CD28 and CTLA-4. PMID: 25382658
  38. our data provide evidence that Vav1 is the linker molecule that couples CD28 to PIP5Kalpha activation and strongly fit with a potential model in which CD28 regulates PIP2 synthesis and turnover in T lymphocytes. PMID: 25539813
  39. Thus, aberrant CD28 expression on circulating CD8+ T cells and the CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T cells ratio reflect the dysregulation of T cell activation and are related to the pathogenesis of chronic HBV infection. PMID: 25013781
  40. Five functional polymorphisms of B7/CD28 co-signaling molecules alter susceptibility to colorectal cancer. PMID: 25497975
  41. Studies suggest that CD28 T > C polymorphism (rs3116496) may have an increased risk of cancer in Asians. PMID: 24927673
  42. These results suggest that HVEM might play more important roles than CD28 in ConA-mediated T cell proliferation PMID: 24163161
  43. Results indicate that the CC genotype and C allele of PD.1.9 and TT genotype and the T allele of CD28 are genetic risk factors for development of a severe grade of GVHD. PMID: 24564845
  44. these data identify CD28 as a novel receptor molecule that may contribute to amplify the inflammatory response in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis by favoring pro-inflammatory cytokine production and Th17 amplification PMID: 24412596
  45. The results of our study suggest an association between IVS3 +17T/C polymorphism in the CD28 gene and acute kidney allograft rejection. PMID: 24368148
  46. Increased circulating level of HSP60 and HSP70 might play a role in initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis in CKD subjects through perturbation of CD4(+)CD28(null) cells. PMID: 24347824
  47. Loss of CD28 expression by liver-infiltrating T cells contributes to pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. PMID: 24726754
  48. Investigation of organ sites, molecules, and cell subsets provides involvement in the priming of CD28 transgene-specific CD8 T cells following vaccination with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector. PMID: 24951814
  49. this study identified two crucial immune-related molecules-CD28 and NFATc1, as putative targets of miR-145 in human and experimental myasthenia gravis PMID: 24043548
  50. CD28 is an important mediator of Multiple myeloma survival during stress and can be targeted to overcome chemotherapy resistance. PMID: 24782505
  51. findings show T(-) in CD28 + 17 (T/C) and the A(+) in CTLA-4 +49 (A/G) genotypes are associated with susceptibility to aggressive periodontal disease. study shows polymorphisms as potential genetic susceptibility markers of periodontitis. PMID: 23163888
  52. Data indicate that low CD28 superagonists concentrations favor Treg-cell expansion over pro-inflammatory cytokine release in vitro. PMID: 24374661
  53. The associations between costimulatory molecule gene polymorphisms including: CTLA4, PD-1, ICOS and CD28 with active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were evaluated in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. PMID: 24057239
  54. Data indicate that phosphorylation of Carma1 down-stream of TCR/CD28-dependent NF-kappaB induction is regulated in part by Akt. PMID: 24548923
  55. results indicate that CD28c.17+3T>C is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia PMID: 23411043
  56. results confirm the involvement of PTPN22 and CD28 genes in the genetic susceptibility to T1D PMID: 24103478
  57. early Ag-independent encounters are an important window for optimizing T cell responses to Ag by CD28 PMID: 23966623
  58. We could show that CD4+CD28null cells are present in high amounts in lung tissue obtained from COPD GOLD IV patients suggesting a direct involvement of those cells in the pathophysiology of COPD. PMID: 23532603
  59. Melanoma patients were investigated for the occurrence of CD28 antibodies and the effect of the latter on overall and progress-free survival. PMID: 23483974
  60. CD28 regulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate turnover by recruiting and activating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases alpha in human primary CD4( ) T lymphocytes. PMID: 23589613
  61. Results showed that serum sCTLA-4, sCD28, and CD80 but not CD86 concentrations in all RA patients were significantly higher than concentrations in healthy control subjects. PMID: 22917707
  62. Studies indicate co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors B7-1, B7-2, CD28 and TNFRSF14 have a pivotal role in T cell biology, as they determine the functional outcome of T cell receptor (TCR) signalling. PMID: 23470321
  63. CD28 gene polymorphisms contribute to sporadic breast cancer risk and have a significant association with clinicopathological features in a northeast Chinese Han population PMID: 23133541
  64. Studies indicate that CD28 two pathways costimulation can impact on many aspects of T cell activation, differentiation, and tolerance. PMID: 19214786
  65. CD28 enhances T cell proliferation during Listeria infection in transgenic mice via signals emanating from undiscovered sites in T-cell cytoplasmic tails. PMID: 22896637
  66. The polymorphisms of the proximal promoter of CD28 were not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and the polymorphism -372 A/G was not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus or soluble CD28. PMID: 21544637
  67. CD28 signals are required for interleukin (IL)-2-mediated survival and proliferation of gammadelta T cell subsets following Plasmodium infection. PMID: 22732586
  68. Two genes, HK2 and CD28, emerged as potential culprits in diabetes-increased tuberculosis susceptibility. PMID: 22230325
  69. Cell surface expressed PD1:CD28 retains the capacity to bind PD-L1 resulting in T cell costimulation. PMID: 22503210
  70. Genetic variation in CD28 gene is associated with acute rejection of liver transplantation. PMID: 22579879
  71. Loss of CD28 expression is associated with systemic immunosuppression related to cervical cancer progression. PMID: 22094905
  72. CTLA-4 expression levels were higher in older subjects, with no difference in CD28 expression levels between younger/older individuals. PMID: 22783574
  73. Increase in CD28 serum levels may be the result of CD28 gene overexpression, which could be related to the decrease in CD28+ T cells, T-cell hyporesponsiveness and immune impairment that occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID: 20390280
  74. we demonstrate that engagement of CD28, by a single monoclonal antibody strongly activates the lamina propria T lymphocytes but not peripheral blood T lymphocytes through a PI3-kinase dependent signalling pathway. PMID: 22385243
  75. The constellation of specific alleles in CTLA-4, CD28, and ICOS genes contributes to the susceptibility and clinical course of non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID: 21669243
  76. CD28 uses its homodimer interface to bind staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). PMID: 21931534
  77. CD28 costimulation specifically induces signaling necessary for proper NF-kappaB activation, whereas CD2 signals more strongly to S6-ribosomal protein. PMID: 22013130
  78. CD28 IVS3 +17T>C polymorphism might be genetic susceptibility factor for cervical cancer in Chinese population. PMID: 20846283
  79. Prototypic T cell costimulatory receptor CD28 is overexpressed on myeloma cells during disease progression and plays a previously unrecognized role as a two-way molecular bridge to support myeloid stromal cells in the microenvironment PMID: 21715687
  80. polymorphisms of three major genes involved in the regulation of immune response, CTLA4, CD28 and ICOS might be involved in development of the clinical variables of IgAN PMID: 21677403
  81. T allele in CD28 IVS3 +17T/C polymorphism is associated with a susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Western Mexico PMID: 21508506
  82. Similar to B7-1 and B7-2, B7-H2 costimulation via CD28 induced survival factor Bcl-xL, downregulated cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1), and triggered signaling cascade of ERK and AKT kinase-dependent pathways PMID: 21530327
  83. these data suggest that preeclampsia is associated with ICOS, but is not associated with the CTLA-4 or CD28 gene polymorphisms. PMID: 21160481
  84. CD28 has a role in improving expansion and persistence of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in lymphoma patients PMID: 21540550
  85. C-terminal proline-rich motif of CD28 are involved in the recruitment of FLNa/NIK complexes to the membrane as well as in the activation of NIK and IKKalpha. PMID: 21277899
  86. Report the role of CD28 in allergen-induced T cell activation in allergic asthma and rhinitis. PMID: 21356099
  87. Flow cytometry measurements of CD28 expression by peripheral blood lymphocytes may facilitate the identification of liver transplant patients at a high risk of developing de novo malignancies. PMID: 21384512
  88. The upregulated level of costimulatory molecules CD28/B7-2 and CD40/ CD40L on T cells and B cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. PMID: 19086656
  89. The ultimate nature of CD28 signalling relies on its cytoplasmic tail and on its ability to recruit several signalling mediators involved in coupling CD28 to distinct NF-kappaB cascades. PMID: 20863851
  90. these results suggest that the polymorphisms in the CD28, CTLA4 and ICOS genes at least do not modulate risk of melanoma and nor do those influence the disease prognosis in the investigated population. PMID: 19672595
  91. CD28-induced RelA is a key transcription factor of FOXP3 expression in human CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. PMID: 21268019
  92. These findings suggest that the CD28 gene may have significant role in the protection of active visceral leighmaniasis in the Iranian population. PMID: 20962715
  93. The CD28 gene c.534+17T> polymorphism does not represent an important risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 in a group of the Turkish population. PMID: 21291098
  94. The functional status of CD8+ T cells is determined by CD28 but not NKG2D expression. PMID: 20844584
  95. Report in vitro propagation and dynamics of T cells from skin biopsies by methods using interleukins-2 and -4 or anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated microbeads. PMID: 20814620
  96. Data show that CD86 1057G>A, CTLA4-1722T>C, CTLA4-318C>T, CTLA4(AT)n, CD28(CAA)n, and D2S72(CA)n were found associated with susceptibility to pemphigus foliaceus. PMID: 20433886
  97. 2 samples, African & European,were analysed for SNPs, CD28 -372(G>A), & int3 17(T>C)& the microsatellite CD28 (CAA)n. no significant differences were found & none of the markers is a tag SNP in these populations. PMID: 20477885
  98. results suggest that B7/CD28 family peripheral blood transcripts may serve as valuable markers reflecting the pathological features of colon cancer PMID: 20140740
  99. targeting costimulation blockade at CD28 preserves CTLA-4-dependent immune regulation and promotes allograft survival PMID: 20371478
  100. CD28 regulates HIV-1 provirus transcription through a complex interplay of positive and negative signals that may be manipulated to control HIV-1 transcription and replication PMID: 20368329

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Subcellular Location Membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 3: Cell surface
Tissue Specificity Expressed in T-cells and plasma cells, but not in less mature B-cells.
Database Links

HGNC: 1653

OMIM: 186760

KEGG: hsa:940

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000324890

UniGene: Hs.443123

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