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Cytokines are a large group of proteins that are important in cell signaling. Their release has an effect on the behavior of cells around them. It can be said that cytokines are involved in autocrine signaling, paracrine signaling and endocrine signaling as immunomodulating agents. Cytokines may include growth factors, chemokines, interferons, interleukins, colony-stimulating factors, and tumour necrosis factors(despite some overlap in the terminology). Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells; a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell.
Cancer is a group of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. They form a subset of neoplasms. Comparing with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely.
Transmembrane proteins are a group of integral membrane proteins that attach the biological membrane permanently. Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit specific substances to across the biological membrane. They frequently undergo significant conformational changes to move a substance through the membrane.
Neuroscience, also known as a science of nervous system, is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems (and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems), including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.
Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths.