A transport machine -- ATP-binding cassette
A transport machine -- ATP-binding cassetteFigure 1 The Structure of ATP-binding cassette The picture is from wikipedia ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the largest known transmembrane protein superfamily, widely distrib...
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Human Leukocyte Antigen: Distinguish between Friend and Foe
Human Leukocyte Antigen: Distinguish between Friend and FoeMHC proteins are found in all higher vertebrates. The glycoprotein encoded by human MHC is called human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which specifically presents short peptides to T cells and haves a key role in the immune de...
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CD Antigens - From Leucocytes Surface Markers to Diagnostic Markers for Cancer
CD Antigens - From Leucocytes Surface Markers to Diagnostic Markers for CancerCD antigens, also known as cell surface antigens of leukocytes or cluster of differentiation, are molecules originally defined as being present on the cell surface of leucocytes and recognized by specific antibody molecu...
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The Rare Disease-Huntington's Disease
The Rare Disease-Huntington's DiseaseHuntington's disease (HD) is also known as "hereditary chorea" and "chronic progressive chorea" [1]. Huntington's disease is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by an autosomal dominant mutation that causes the...
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Ice Bucket Challenge – Pay your attention to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Ice Bucket Challenge – Pay your attention to amyotrophic lateral sclerosisAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing, inevitably fatal neurological disease that attacks nerve cells responsible for the voluntary muscles. It is characterized by rapid degeneration and selective ...
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What Is Immune Checkpoint Therapy?
What Is Immune Checkpoint Therapy?Immune checkpoint therapy, mainly including anti‑CTLA‑4 therapy and anti‑PD‑1/PD‑L1 therapy, which targets regulatory pathways in T cells to enhance antitumor immune responses by blocking the inhibitory signals...
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What Are Immune Checkpoints?
What Are Immune Checkpoints?Immune checkpoints, molecules in the immune system, are regulators of immune activation by regulating the antigen recognition of T cell receptor (TCR) in the process of immune response. They play a key role in maintainin...
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What Are Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors?Our immune system keeps us from disease, killing bacteria and viruses. T cell is one main type of immune cell. Proteins on the surface of T cells, called immune checkpoints, aim to turn on an immune response or turn it o...
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What Are Immune Checkpoint Proteins?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Proteins?As described in the question- What is an immune checkpoint? Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system. These immune checkpoints are crucial for self-tolerance, which prevents the immune system from attacking...
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What Are Immune Checkpoint Pathways?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Pathways?Tumor immune micro-environment includes a wide range of complex interactions between tumor cell, immune cells (antigen presenting cells, T cell, NK cell, B cell, etc.), and tumor stroma. Host immune response against tumo...
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