What Is Immune Checkpoint Therapy?
What Is Immune Checkpoint Therapy?Immune checkpoint therapy, mainly including anti‑CTLA‑4 therapy and anti‑PD‑1/PD‑L1 therapy, which targets regulatory pathways in T cells to enhance antitumor immune responses by blocking the inhibitory signals...
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What Are Immune Checkpoints?
What Are Immune Checkpoints?Immune checkpoints, molecules in the immune system, are regulators of immune activation by regulating the antigen recognition of T cell receptor (TCR) in the process of immune response. They play a key role in maintainin...
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What Are Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors?Our immune system keeps us from disease, killing bacteria and viruses. T cell is one main type of immune cell. Proteins on the surface of T cells, called immune checkpoints, aim to turn on an immune response or turn it o...
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What Are Immune Checkpoint Proteins?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Proteins?As described in the question- What is an immune checkpoint? Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system. These immune checkpoints are crucial for self-tolerance, which prevents the immune system from attacking...
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What Are Immune Checkpoint Pathways?
What Are Immune Checkpoint Pathways?Tumor immune micro-environment includes a wide range of complex interactions between tumor cell, immune cells (antigen presenting cells, T cell, NK cell, B cell, etc.), and tumor stroma. Host immune response against tumo...
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A "trembling" Parkinson's DiseaseParkinson's disease (PD), also known as parkinsonism, is a complex neurodegenerative disease (also known as cognitive disorder) second only to Alzheimer's disease [1], which mainly affects the neurons of dopamine product...
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One World, One Hope——What Can We Do about AIDS?
One World, One Hope——What Can We Do about AIDS?Figure 1 AIDS Red Ribbon Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that belongs to the class of retroviruses. HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system. It takes CD4 T lymphocytes, the most...
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What You Should Know The Common Sense of Neurodegeneration
What You Should Know The Common Sense of NeurodegenerationNeurodegeneration is a series of neurological diseases caused by the loss of nerve structure and function and will be worsen over time. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) are highly damaging brain lesions and have graduall...
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What You Have to Know about Exosomes
What You Have to Know about ExosomesThe exosomes are vesicles secreted by the living cells to the extracellular space, with a diameter of 30-150 nm and a density of 1.13-1.19 g/mL. Almost all types of cells in the human body produce exosomes, which are nea...
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The Overview of Organelles
The Overview of OrganellesAn organelle is a specialized subunit that performs specific functions within a cell. Organelles are embedded within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In the more complex eukaryotic cells, organelles are...
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