Recombinant Human C-C motif chemokine 2 protein(CCL2) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP000821HU
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Product Details

Purity >96% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using human monocytes is in a concentration range of 10-100 ng/ml.
Target Names CCL2
Uniprot No. P13500
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names C-C motif chemokine 2; CCL2; CCL2_HUMAN; Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 2; GDCF 2; GDCF-2; GDCF2; HC11; HSMCR30; JE; MCAF; MCP 1; MCP-1; MCP1; MGC9434; Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; Monocyte chemotactic and activating factor; Monocyte chemotactic protein 1; Monocyte secretory protein JE; SCYA2; Small inducible cytokine A2 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1; homologous to mouse Sig je); Small inducible cytokine A2; Small inducible cytokine subfamily A (Cys Cys); member 2; Small-inducible cytokine A2; SMC CF; SMC-CF; SMCCF
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 24-99aa
Complete Sequence QPDAINAPVT CCYNFTNRKI SVQRLASYRR ITSSKCPKEA VIFKTIVAKE ICADPKQKWV QDSMDHLDKQ TQTPKT
Mol. Weight 8.7 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes and basophils but not neutrophils or eosinophils. Augments monocyte anti-tumor activity. Has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or atherosclerosis. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis.
Gene References into Functions
  1. The expression of CX3CL1 and capital EM, Cyrilliccapital ES, Cyrilliccapital ER, Cyrillic-1 affect vital pulmonary capacity and forced expiratory volume in patients with asthma complicated by diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID: 29461240
  2. Aberrant histone modifications, including acetylation and tri-methylation, were found both in global histone and specific MCP-1 gene locos in monocytes from patients with coronary artery disease PMID: 29609686
  3. Alzheimer disease patients had higher plasma MCP-1 levels compared with mild cognitive impairment patients and controls, and severe AD patients had the highest levels. PMID: 29352259
  4. CCL2 played important roles in regulating platelet function and arterial thrombosis through the PKCalpha-P38MAPK-HSP27 pathway. PMID: 29864522
  5. Studied role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in migration of monocytes and lymphocytes during nickel induced contact hypersensitivity. PMID: 29132256
  6. High chemokine CCL2 expression is associated with colorectal cancer. PMID: 30419802
  7. NOX4 is induced in early alcoholic liver injury and regulates CCR2/CCL2 mRNA stability thereby promoting recruitment of inflammatory cells and production of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID: 28383062
  8. study confirmed the connection between high uMCP-1 levels and poor prognosis and also disease activity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-Associated Vasculitis (AAV); it also suggests an association of the A/A genotype at position -2518 in the MCP-1 gene and poor prognosis in AAV PMID: 29720895
  9. Given that IL-8, MIP-1beta, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. PMID: 29023999
  10. In lupus nephritis, urinary MCP-1 and TWEAK possess higher correlation coefficients with renal damage and larger areas under ROC curves than other markers for rapid discrimination of severe disease. PMID: 29451067
  11. We propose that endogenous gC1qR/p33 physically interacts with MCP-1 causing stabilization of the MCP-1 protein and stimulation of its activity in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a novel gC1qR/p33-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanism of action. PMID: 29358188
  12. berberine inhibited the expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 induced by LPS. PMID: 28852897
  13. In Colombian systemic lupus erythematosus patients, urinary NGAL and MCP-1 in addition to anti-C1q antibodies were useful biomarkers for the identification of renal involvement and discrimination of active lupus nephritis. PMID: 29073812
  14. These results provide evidence that necrotic cells induce the expression of CCL2/MCP-1 and CCL20/MIP-3alpha in glioblastoma cells through activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and facilitate the infiltration of microglia into tumor tissues. PMID: 30048972
  15. Serum CCL2 and sICAM-1 concentrations were significantly decreased in CNS tumors in comparison with the comparative group. Among proteins tested in the serum, a higher area under the ROC curve (AUC) revealed CCL2 compared to sICAM-1 in differentiating subjects with CNS brain tumors from non-tumoral subjects. PMID: 29086194
  16. MCP-1 -2518 genotype may influence the outcome of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in aggressive periodontitis patients. PMID: 28427824
  17. Study describes how cysteine-rich 61 (CCN1) promotes monocyte migration by upregulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) expression in osteoblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease. CCN1 could serve as a potential target for RA treatment. PMID: 28341837
  18. The MCP-1 concentration was positively correlated with blood pressure among smokers. PMID: 29098933
  19. CCL2-2518A/G (rs1024611) polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of gynecological cancer. PMID: 29458367
  20. High MCP1 expression is associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID: 29205349
  21. Results provide evidence for MCP-1 involvement in the development of PVVs and indicate that inflammation could be implicated in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID: 28623996
  22. Study found that the activation of CCR2 by its ligand CCL2 increased the expression of SMO and Gli-1, resulting in Hh pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion. PMID: 29115520
  23. these findings collectively indicate that TGF-beta regulates CCL2 expression in a stage-dependent manner during breast cancer progression PMID: 29107385
  24. Individuals with rs1024611 AG and GG genotypes exhibited significantly higher susceptibility to Diabetic Foot Ulcers. PMID: 29995756
  25. REVIEW: regulation and importance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 PMID: 28914666
  26. this study shows that CCL2 promoter hypomethylation is associated with gout risk in Chinese Han male population PMID: 28690186
  27. Results showed that both heterozygous and homozygous genotypes are associated with age-related macular degeneration pathology. Allele frequency analysis showed that 'G' allele is frequent in AMD patients as compared to controls PMID: 29664944
  28. Oxidative stress markers in the pregestational period did not have a predictive value in the recurrent pregnancy loss and repeated implantation failure . CCL2 might be useful in risk prediction PMID: 28707148
  29. Distributions of MCP-1 -2518A/G and VEGF -634C/G polymorphisms are significantly different between type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot ulcer patients PMID: 29901584
  30. In multivariate analysis, the IL1B rs16944 TT and TNF rs1799964 TC genotypes were significantly associated with intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection. Twenty-two out of 72 congenitally infected newborns had confirmed sensorineural hearing loss. Carriers of CT or TT genotype of CCL2 rs13900 had increased risk of hearing loss at birth and at 6 months of age. PMID: 28501927
  31. Effective IL1beta and CCL2 antagonists are currently in clinical review to treat benign inflammatory disease, and their transition to the cancer clinic could have a rapid impact PMID: 28790030
  32. The genotype and allele frequencies between groups did not show significant differences. However, the GG genotype was the most frequent in children with insulin resistance. The GG genotype was associated with insulin resistance (OR = 2.2, P = 0.03) in a genetic model. Conclusion The -2518 A>G MCP-1 gene polymorphism may be related to the development of insulin resistance in Mexican children. PMID: 29694633
  33. the results of the present study confirmed CCL2 as a direct target of miR-206, and showed that the upregulation of CCL2 caused by the downregulation of miR-206 was responsible for the development of severe HEV71 encephalitis. PMID: 28765968
  34. data disclose the complexity of MCP-1 regulation upon CHIKV infection and point to a crucial role of IFNbeta in the chemokine secretion. PMID: 27558873
  35. The study suggests that MCP-1 (-2518A>G) AG genotype and G allele could be considered as risk factors for susceptibility to ovarian cancer. PMID: 28886321
  36. use of MCP-1/IL-10 ratio in combination with ultrasound findings appears to provide a promising modality for predicting preeclampsia PMID: 28038968
  37. It can be concluded that MCP-1 and CCR2 polymorphisms are not associated with AgP in Turkish population. PMID: 28458180
  38. Clathrithromycin suppressed TLR4-mediated MCP-1 production in human mesangial cells. PMID: 27614743
  39. CCL2 siRNA exhibited effective inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the glioma cell line U251. PMID: 28714025
  40. CCL2 in addition to IFN-gamma can be used to differentiate among Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection possibilities. PMID: 28610785
  41. Results indicated that MCP-1 and CCR2 polymorphisms may influence the progression of IgAN, but not increase/decrease its susceptibility. PMID: 27788494
  42. Data suggest that, compared to control individuals, patients with T2DM-Y (young onset type 2 diabetes), NPDR (non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and PDR (proliferative diabetic retinopathy) exhibit significantly higher serum levels of MCP-1. This study was conducted in India. PMID: 28336215
  43. The meta-analysis demonstrated that urinary MCP-1 was significantly higher in patients with active LN than in those with inactive LN and control subjects, and the patients with inactive LN showed significantly higher urinary MCP-1 levels than the controls. PMID: 27278779
  44. investigated whether functional polymorphism at MCP-1 regulatory region associates with disease phenotype in Indian systemic lupus erythematosus patients (SLE) patients; findings suggest that -2518G allele of MCP-1 -2518 A/G polymorphism is associated with renal disorders and may influence MCP-1 gene expression among Indian SLE patients PMID: 28433894
  45. joint interaction analysis of ACE I/D and CCL2 C-2518T showed a significantly higher frequency of II genotype of ACE I/D in coexistence with TT genotype of CCL2 C-2518T in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) patients. PMID: 28691415
  46. EGF up-regulated CCL2 expression in HNSCC cells, which recruited monocytes and turned them into M2-like macrophages, thus forming a positive feedback paracrine loop. PMID: 27888616
  47. CCL2 gene silencing inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis, associated with a reduction in cancer stem cell renewal and recruitment of M2 macrophages in triple negative breast cancer PMID: 27283985
  48. Mesenchymal stem cells from Ankylosing spondylitis patients secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) during abnormal osteogenic differentiation. PMID: 27921117
  49. CCL2 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to latent tuberculous infection in well-defined North-East Thai populations. PMID: 27510253
  50. Meta-analysis suggests that the MCP-1-2518A/G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of lupus nephritis. PMID: 29390552
  51. Association of polymorphic markers of chemokine genes, their receptors, and CD14 gene with coronary atherosclerosis PMID: 29369549
  52. CCL2 is associated with decreased recurrence-free survival in patients with basal-like breast cancer patients. PMID: 27125354
  53. MCP-1 were up-regulated in macrophages cultured with cell-culture derived infectious HCV particles and promoted the migration of monocytes. PMID: 28860098
  54. monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an endogenous CCR4-binding ligand, was specifically upregulated in the head and neck squamous cell carcinomamicroenvironment compared to the other four CCR4-binding ligands PMID: 27177223
  55. Our findings indicate that the -2518 A/G MCP-1(CCL2) promoter gene polymorphism is associated with a higher risk of psoriasis. PMID: 27859608
  56. Urine MCP-1 may detect early tubulointerstitial fibrosis in adults with normal kidney function. PMID: 27288357
  57. p300 inhibition attenuates both thrombin induced-CCL2 expression and histone H3 and H4 acetylation in HLFs, suggesting that p300 is involved in thrombin-induced CCL2 expression via hyperacetylating histone H3 and H4. PMID: 28407300
  58. in the presence of autologous platelets, monocytes from older adults synthesized greater MCP-1 than younger adults PMID: 29167233
  59. Oral and periodontal innate immunity is affected by HIV viremia and ART. GCF IL-8, G-CSF, as well as serum IL-8, MCP-1 and GM-CSF may be useful biomarkers for the detection of disease presence and/or its severity due to HIV infection and ART use. PMID: 28043030
  60. The level of miR-33 was decreased, whereas the CCL2 level was increased in the articular cartilage from the osteoarthritis patients compared with the control group. PMID: 27129293
  61. Studies indicate manipulating CCL2-CCR2 interaction as a potential approach for combating metastatic disease. PMID: 26885690
  62. CCL2 levels were increased in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and were linked with decreased bone mineral density and attenuated E2 concentrations. PMID: 28164676
  63. Interruption of either CCL2-CCR2 signaling or cathepsin B function significantly impaired perineural invasion (PNI). PMID: 28951461
  64. The results of this study support the hypothesis that polymorphism in the MCP-1 gene may contribute to the etiology of colorectal cancer PMID: 29154245
  65. This study enclosed strong synergistic association of risk genotypes of C3 and CFH Y402H with AMD. We also revealed synergistic influence of CCL2-2518 and the at-risk genotype of the C3 in AMD with an estimated AP = 50.9% (adjusted AP = 24.7%). Present findings show that CCL2-2518 polymorphism is not an innocent bystander in AMD susceptibility when combined with the at-risk genotype of C3 (R102G). PMID: 28095095
  66. FN1/CCL2 levels are elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. PMID: 27259755
  67. rs1024611 polymorphism not significantly associated with occurrence risk of psoriasis vulgaris in Chinese population PMID: 29145242
  68. Our results demonstrate that CCL2-2518 A/G genotypes were equally distributed among groups and there was no difference in hs C-reactive protein levels. PMID: 26940485
  69. In plasma, but not CSF, the bivariate MCP4 (CCL13)/ MCP1(CCL2) ratio is ca. twofold elevated in PTSD patients compared with healthy controls. PMID: 28170001
  70. Results show that CCL2 is up-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and suggest that it is involved in angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in ccRCC. PMID: 27666332
  71. Testosterone increases CCL-2 expression in visceral adipose tissue from obese women of reproductive age. PMID: 28161330
  72. ATF4 contributes to tumor growth of endometrial cancer (EC) by promoting CCL2 and subsequent recruitment of macrophage, and ATF4/CCL2 axis might be a potential therapeutic target for EC. PMID: 28843961
  73. we could provide evidence that established stress-related biomarkers ET-1, MCP-1, CGA were differentially regulated among patients with AF compared to healthy controls. PMID: 28886122
  74. a molecular mechanism of oxidized low density lipoprotein antibody on inhibition of oxLDL-induced ERK MAPK pathway and consequent MCP-1 release. PMID: 27995732
  75. tumor-promoting role for CCL2 acting through CCR2 on the tumor microenvironment PMID: 27820834
  76. conclude that MCP-1/CCL2 plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis, which has potentially important therapeutic implications PMID: 28472164
  77. A polarized secretion assay suggested that the silencing of endothelial myeloid-secretory impairs T effector transendothelial migration by reducing the preferential secretion of endothelial-produced CCL2 PMID: 26701136
  78. In cultured macrophages, LPS-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was suppressed by NaN3 through inhibition of STAT1 and IkappaBzeta activities. PMID: 28391993
  79. CCL2/CCR2 axis is expressed in the majority of monocytoid Acute myeloid leukemia blasts PMID: 28045930
  80. identified CCL2 as a novel KIT D816V-dependent key regulator of vascular cell migration and angiogenesis in systemic mastocytosis PMID: 27856463
  81. This study establishes ECL1i as the first allosteric inhibitor of CCR2 with functional selectivity. PMID: 26979087
  82. Constitutive expression of CCL2 by the mouse mammary epithelium induces a state of low level chronic inflammation that increases stromal density and elevates cancer risk. We propose that CCL2-driven inflammation contributes to the increased risk of breast cancer observed in women with high mammographic density. PMID: 28077158
  83. CCR4-deficient Treg and CCR2-deficient monocyticmyeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were defective in glioma accumulation. PMID: 27530322
  84. Urine, but not plasma, MCP-1 levels are associated with hospital readmission, development of complications of cirrhosis, and mortality. PMID: 27359339
  85. CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells secrete high levels of CCL2, promoting the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. PMID: 26027727
  86. Results of the luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated that miR-1-3p targeted CCL2. MiR-1-3p suppresses the proliferation and invasion of urinary bladder cancer cells by targeting CCL2. PMID: 28618950
  87. Low wall shear stress concomitant with turbulent flow contributes to sustained expression of MCP-1 in endothelial cells and presumably plays a role in facilitating macrophage infiltration and exacerbating inflammation, which leads to enlargement or rupture of intracranial aneurysms. PMID: 27160403
  88. MCP-1 is increased in endothelial cells after treatment with uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate. PMID: 28472795
  89. Elevations in serum and follicular fluid MCP-1 levels are positively correlated with adiposity and negatively correlated with pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF. PMID: 28104240
  90. Nurr1 overexpression exerts neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory roles via down-regulating CCL2 in both in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease models, contributing to developing mechanism-based and neuroprotective strategies against PD PMID: 27940361
  91. Study shows that MCP-1 -2518A/G polymorphism does not influence ischemic stroke risk PMID: 28131166
  92. IL-6 Mediates Macrophage Infiltration after Irradiation via Up-regulation of CCL2/CCL5 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer PMID: 28054838
  93. Urinary CCL2:Cr/CXCL10:Cr alone have similar prognostic performance after kidney transplantation, but when both are elevated, this suggests a worse prognosis. PMID: 27548845
  94. Using a combination of cytokine expression profiling and miRNAs algorithms, we identified VEGFA/CCL2 and FOXO3a as direct targets of miR-1, miR-206 and miR-31, respectively. Importantly, systemic delivery of anti-VEGFA/CCL2 or pre-miR-1, pre-miR-206 and anti-miR-31 significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis, TAMs accumulation, tumor growth and lung metastasis. PMID: 27541266
  95. MCP-1 is markedly elevated in serum of essential hypertension patients with highest levels in patients with microalbuminuria. PMID: 27090943
  96. Significantly suppresses the p-STAT3 expression and its downstream genes including CCL2 and Bcl2. PMID: 27668844
  97. the -2518A/G polymorphism in the MCP-1 gene was found to be associated with an increased susceptibility to Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a North Chinese population. PMID: 25966175
  98. in Argentine patients, MCP-1 gene polymorphism confers susceptibility for developing rheumatoid arthritis PMID: 27530408
  99. this study shows that that the CCL2 levels are increased in renal transplant rejection group when compared with the non-rejection, stable-graft, and control PMID: 27960564
  100. MCP-1 and NT-proBNP are independent predictors of SS, while low calcidiol plasma levels are associated with CAC PMID: 27171378

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in the seminal plasma, endometrial fluid and follicular fluid (at protein level).
Database Links

HGNC: 10618

OMIM: 158105

KEGG: hsa:6347

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000225831

UniGene: Hs.303649

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