Recombinant Human Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor protein (CSF2) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP002081HU
Size $142
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Product Details

>98% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The ED50 as determined by a cell proliferation assay using human TF-1 cells is less than 0.1 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of >1.0x107 IU/mg.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
Colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage); Colony Stimulating Factor 2; Colony stimulating factor; Colony-stimulating factor; CSF 2; CSF; CSF2; CSF2_HUMAN; GM-CSF; GMCSF; Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor; Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MGC131935; MGC138897; MGI1GM; Molgramostin; Pluripoietin-a; Sargramostim
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Complete Sequence
Mol. Weight
14.5 kDa
Protein Length
Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info
Lyophilized powder
Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
5-10 business days
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes.
Gene References into Functions
  1. GM-CSF could be induced by M. pneumoniae infection in vivo and vitro. Childen with high level GM-CSF had longer duration of fever. GM-CSF probably plays a vital role in neutrophil inflammation in M. pneumoniae infection. PMID: 30007865
  2. Data show that CD4 T cells from synovial fluid are enriched for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production, suggests that the GM-CSF programme may be a primary pathogenic process. PMID: 29142230
  3. GM-CSF bioavailability plays a critical role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Decreased bioavailability coupled with the genetic risk markers and/or smoking results in aggressive ileal Crohn's disease behavior. PMID: 29434451
  4. Data show that GIF (ORF117 ) serves as a competitive decoy receptor by leveraging binding hotspots underlying the cognate receptor interactions of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). PMID: 27819269
  5. As translated to human disease, these findings suggest vaccine-mediated expansion of GM-CSF-producing T cells could be an effective prophylactic or therapeutic TB strategy. PMID: 29233902
  6. In a subset of patients who received GM-CSF, circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and anti-GM-CSF-neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) were also modulated. The majority of patients developed anti-GM-CSF Nabs, which correlated with improved RFS and OS PMID: 28536308
  7. this study shows that cortisol inhibits CSF2 via DNA methylation and inhibits invasion in first-trimester trophoblast cells PMID: 28846166
  8. Oral and periodontal innate immunity is affected by HIV viremia and ART. GCF IL-8, G-CSF, as well as serum IL-8, MCP-1 and GM-CSF may be useful biomarkers for the detection of disease presence and/or its severity due to HIV infection and ART use. PMID: 28043030
  9. This review summarizes a number of findings to provide the currently available information regarding the anticancer immune response of GM-CSG. [review] PMID: 27364892
  10. Data suggest that the intratumoral GM-CSF expression, as a potentially independent prognostic biomarker for recurrence, might improve conventional clinical and pathologic analysis to refine outcome prediction for clinically localized clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients after surgery. PMID: 27016418
  11. High GM-CSF expression is associated with breast Cancer. PMID: 28754674
  12. In gastric cancer (GC), tumour-derived GM-CSF activated neutrophils and induced neutrophil PD-L1 expression via Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling pathway. The activated PD-L1(+) neutrophils effectively suppressed normal T-cell immunity in vitro and contributed to the growth and progression of human GC in vivo. PMID: 28274999
  13. The IL-3/ GM-CSF effected on the myofibroblastic differentiation of human adipose derive stromal cells (hASCs) as well as it did on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). PMID: 28377320
  14. Obesity alters the lung neutrophil infiltration to enhance breast cancer metastasis through IL5 and GM-CSF. PMID: 28737771
  15. Data suggest that the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an effective recombinant host for heterologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) production. PMID: 28376863
  16. Letter: Knockdown of either filaggrin or loricrin increases the productions of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-8, IL-18 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in stratified human keratinocytes. PMID: 26381575
  17. Impaired RASGRF1/ERK-mediated GM-CSF response characterizes CARD9 deficiency in French-Canadians. PMID: 26521038
  18. Honokiol could possess potential anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits TNF-alpha-induced IL-1beta, GM-CSF and IL-8 production in PBMCs from rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID: 26339358
  19. The canonical NFkappaB signaling in fibroblasts, but not in tumor cells, was shown to be responsible for the induced and constitutive CSF2 expression. PMID: 25919140
  20. GM-CSF primes IL-13 production by macrophages via PAR-2. PMID: 25633855
  21. analysis of an IL2RA polymorphism that controls GM-CSF production in human TH cells PMID: 25278028
  22. NFKBIZ gene knockdown in bronchial epithelial cells suppresses the release of IL-1b-induced IL-6 and GMCSF. PMID: 25629767
  23. CFH Y402H polymorphism is associated with elevated vitreal GM-CSF and choroidal macrophages in the postmortem human eye. PMID: 25814824
  24. Influenza infection stimulates the secretion of IL-8 and GM-CSF by alveolar epithelial cells. PMID: 26033355
  25. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy syndrome febrile episodes are characterized by activation of GM-CSF and IL-8 with Th1 skewing. PMID: 24670131
  26. activation of STAT3 induces the expression of GM-CSFRa that protects CLL cells from apoptosis, suggesting that inhibition of STAT3 or GM-CSFRa may benefit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia PMID: 24836891
  27. G-CSF- or GM-CSF-secreting cancers, albeit not very common are, however, among the most rapidly advancing ones due to a cytokine-mediated immune suppression and angiogenesis. [Review] PMID: 24692240
  28. Treatment with GM-CSF increased the expression of vimentin and ZEB1, similar to TGF-b1 treatment, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin. Our results suggest that GM-CSF could induce EMT in human HERS/ERM cells. PMID: 24258001
  29. GM-CSF polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. PMID: 24117406
  30. The association of GM-CSF expression with systemic inflammation highlights the potential role of Th17-related cytokines in the pathology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID: 24692225
  31. M-CSF induces macrophage transformation by upregulating c-Jun with a certain synergy of NFkappaB. PMID: 24100343
  32. The detection of basal level of IgM rheumatoid factor, IgM and also certain cytokines can be useful in prognosis of effectiveness of rituximab therapy under rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 25080789
  33. Cytokines and signaling molecules predict clinical outcomes in sepsis. PMID: 24244449
  34. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor produces long-term changes in gene and microRNA expression profiles in CD34+ cells from healthy donors. PMID: 24056818
  35. mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells activate macrophages to a tumor-associated macrophage-like phenotype by GM-CSF. PMID: 24823638
  36. The comparison between the cytokine profiles of ET and PV patients showed a statistically significant increase of IL-4, IL-8, GM-CSF, interferon -gamma, MCP-1, PDGF-BB, and VEGF in the ET group PMID: 24463275
  37. Data indicate that differentially expressed IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 levels are associated with K-ras in a stage-specific fashion along colorectal cancer progression and an association was established between mutant K-ras and GM-CSF and IFN-gamma. PMID: 24040001
  38. in the type 2 diabetes mellitus group, significantly higher IL-4 level on the first and the third post dengue virus infection days, while higher IL-10 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were detected on the third postinfection day. PMID: 24078930
  39. loss of BMPR2 induced prolonged phospho-p38 MAPK in response to TNF, and this increased GADD34-PP1 phosphatase activity, dephosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF2alpha), and derepressing GM-CSF mRNA translation PMID: 24446489
  40. Since GM-CSF plays an important role during pregnancy, the reduced levels of GM-CSF in the cervico-vaginal fluid of human papillomavirus(+) women might contribute to explain the reduced live birth rate. PMID: 23920355
  41. SECTM1 secreted from bone marrow stromal cells may interact with CD7 to influence GM-CSF expression in leukemic cells. PMID: 24211252
  42. Describe GM-CSF ELISA for routine clinical diagnosis of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. PMID: 24275678
  43. The data presented suggest that -677C/A in the promoter region of the GM-CSF gene does not play a role in acne pathogenesis. PMID: 23069312
  44. CBL linker and RING finger mutants lead to enhanced GM-CSF signaling due to elevated kinase expression, which can be blocked using small molecule inhibitors targeting specific downstream pathways. PMID: 23696637
  45. impairment of NFATC2-calcineurin interaction promotes megakaryocyte proliferation through up-regulation of CSF2 transcription PMID: 22911897
  46. Overexpression of a nonphosphorylatable MT1-MMP mutant (Y573F) abrogates CSF-2 and CSF-3 transcriptional increases. PMID: 23548906
  47. GM-CSF contributes to aortic aneurysms resulting from SMAD3 deficiency PMID: 23585475
  48. Within pediatric Crohn disease, neutrophil GM-CSF-dependent STAT5 activation and bacterial killing were reduced as GM-CSF autoantibodies increased. PMID: 23600834
  49. This study demonistrated that GMCSF is downregulation in brain in patient with Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 22430742
  50. IL-27 suppresss GM-CSF production under nonpolarizing and T helper (Th)1 cell, but not T helper (Th)17 cell conditions, in both murine and human cultures. PMID: 22837488

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Subcellular Location
Protein Families
GM-CSF family
Database Links

HGNC: 2434

OMIM: 138960

KEGG: hsa:1437

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000296871

UniGene: Hs.1349

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