In the field of molecular biology, the cAMP signaling pathway, also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway, is a G protein-coupled receptor-triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication. Cyclic adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate (cAMP) was the first second messenger to be identified and plays fundamental roles in cellular responses to many hormones and neurotransmitters.
cAMP, also known as cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate, regulates pivotal physiologic processes including metabolism, secretion, calcium homeostasis, muscle contraction, cell fate, and gene transcription. cAMP is a cyclic nucleotide that serves as a vital second messenger in several signaling pathways.
The intracellular levels of cAMP are regulated by the balance between the activities of two enzymes: adenylyl cyclase (AC) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). Different isoforms of these enzymes are encoded by a large number of genes, which differ in their expression patterns and mechanisms of regulation, generating cell-type and stimulus-specific responses.
As mentioned before, the level of cAMP is regulated by AC and PDE. During the process, AC is activated by a type of G-alpha, which in turn induces the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into cAMP. The stimulated adenylyl cyclase can produce numerous cAMP molecules to intensify the signal.
As the figure shows, cAMP acts directly on three main targets: protein kinase A (PKA), the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs). PKA modulates a number of cellular substrates via phosphorylation, including transcription factors, ion channels, transporters, exchangers, intracellular Ca2+-handling proteins, and the contractile machinery.
Epac proteins, as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for both Rap1 and Rap2, have a series of effector proteins, involving adaptor proteins implicated in modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, regulators of G proteins of the Rho family, and phospholipases, relay signaling downstream from Rap.
|ABCC4||ABCC4 Antibody||ABCC4 Protein||ABCC4 cDNA||ABCC4 ELISA Kit|
|ACOX1||ACOX1 Antibody||ACOX1 Protein||ACOX1 cDNA||ACOX1 ELISA Kit|
|ACOX3||ACOX3 Antibody||ACOX3 Protein||ACOX3 cDNA||ACOX3 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY1||ADCY1 Antibody||ADCY1 Protein||ADCY1 cDNA||ADCY1 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY10||ADCY10 Antibody||ADCY10 Protein||ADCY10 cDNA||ADCY10 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY2||ADCY2 Antibody||ADCY2 Protein||ADCY2 cDNA||ADCY2 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY3||ADCY3 Antibody||ADCY3 Protein||ADCY3 cDNA||ADCY3 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY4||ADCY4 Antibody||ADCY4 Protein||ADCY4 cDNA||ADCY4 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY5||ADCY5 Antibody||ADCY5 Protein||ADCY5 cDNA||ADCY5 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY6||ADCY6 Antibody||ADCY6 Protein||ADCY6 cDNA||ADCY6 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY7||ADCY7 Antibody||ADCY7 Protein||ADCY7 cDNA||ADCY7 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY8||ADCY8 Antibody||ADCY8 Protein||ADCY8 cDNA||ADCY8 ELISA Kit|
|ADCY9||ADCY9 Antibody||ADCY9 Protein||ADCY9 cDNA||ADCY9 ELISA Kit|
|ADCYAP1R1||ADCYAP1R1 Antibody||ADCYAP1R1 Protein||ADCYAP1R1 cDNA||ADCYAP1R1 ELISA Kit|
|ADORA1||ADORA1 Antibody||ADORA1 Protein||ADORA1 cDNA||ADORA1 ELISA Kit|
|ADORA2A||ADORA2A Antibody||ADORA2A Protein||ADORA2A cDNA||ADORA2A ELISA Kit|
|ADRB1||ADRB1 Antibody||ADRB1 Protein||ADRB1 cDNA||ADRB1 ELISA Kit|
|ADRB2||ADRB2 Antibody||ADRB2 Protein||ADRB2 cDNA||ADRB2 ELISA Kit|
|AFDN||AFDN Antibody||AFDN Protein||AFDN cDNA||AFDN ELISA Kit|
|AKT1||AKT1 Antibody||AKT1 Protein||AKT1 cDNA||AKT1 ELISA Kit|