Recombinant Human Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4(CTLA4),partial (Active)

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Code CSB-AP005231HU
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity The ED50 as determined by its ability to bind Mouse B7-1 in functional ELISA is less than 20 ng/ml.
Target Names CTLA4
Uniprot No. P16410
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names ALPS5; CD 152; CD; CD152; CD152 antigen; CD152 isoform; Celiac disease 3; CELIAC3; CTLA 4; CTLA-4; CTLA4; CTLA4_HUMAN; Cytotoxic T cell associated 4 ; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated 4; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated 4, soluble isoform, included; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 short spliced form; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated serine esterase 4; Cytotoxic T lymphocyte protein 4; Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4; Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4; GRD4; GSE; ICOS; IDDM12; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 12; Ligand and transmembrane spliced cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4; OTTHUMP00000216623
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Mammalian cell
Expression Region 36-161aa
Complete Sequence KAMHVAQPAVVLASSRGIASFVCEYASPGKATEVRVTVLRQADSQVTEVCAATYMMGNELTFLDDSICTGTSSGNQVNLTIQGLRAMDTGLYICKVELMYPPPYYLGIGNGTQIYVIDPEPCPDSD
Mol. Weight 14.3 kDa
Protein Length Extracellular Domain
Tag Info C-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered 1xPBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Inhibitory receptor acting as a major negative regulator of T-cell responses. The affinity of CTLA4 for its natural B7 family ligands, CD80 and CD86, is considerably stronger than the affinity of their cognate stimulatory coreceptor CD28.
Gene References into Functions
  1. PTPN22 and CTLA-4 polymorphisms are associated with Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes and differentiate between polyglandular and monoglandular autoimmunity. PMID: 29409002
  2. CTLA4 expression levels was found significantly lower in the alopecia areata patients in Iranian cohort; no association between CTLA4 genetic polymorphism and susceptibility to alopecia areata PMID: 29979892
  3. The CTLA-4 gene +49 A/G polymorphism and the NOD2/CARD15 gene N852S polymorphism were not associated with CD or UC in a Turkish population PMID: 30213296
  4. The CTLA4 gene is suggested to correlate with immune thrombocytopenia through its abnormal expression level instead of gene site mutation. PMID: 30319055
  5. Paget disease is characterized by an intense lymphocytic response, devoid of the immune-suppressive impact of the PD-L1 pathway, but with occasional CTLA-4 expression PMID: 29943071
  6. Depending on the environmental conditions, Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells express different isoforms of CTLA-4 with the secreted isoform (sCTLA-4) being the most abundant under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive function of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells is mediated mainly by the secretion of CTLA-4. PMID: 30087255
  7. Increased frequency and CTLA-4-expression of Varicella Zoster Virus-specific T cells from cerebrospinal fluid or blood are specifically found in patients with Varicella Zoster Virus-related Central Nervous System-infection. PMID: 28845512
  8. Rs56102377 in the 3'-UTR of CTLA4 may act as a protective factor by disrupting the regulatory role of miR-105 in CTLA4 expression. PMID: 30355938
  9. The present work showed in West Algerian population that the HLA-B27 antigen and the variation in the CTLA4 3'UTR region played an important role in the ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility. The heterogeneity of this disease is deduced by genetic difference found between B27+ and B27- groups. PMID: 29675891
  10. High CTLA4 expression is associated with Melanoma. PMID: 29150430
  11. CTLA4 protein had significantly higher serum level in recurrent spontaneous abortion patients than in healthy controls. In recurrent spontaneous abortion patients, AA genotype carriers had higher CTLA4 serum level than that GG genotype carriers. Minor alleles of CTLA4 polymorphisms might inhibit the recurrent spontaneous abortion susceptibility via upregulated the protein expression level. PMID: 30334961
  12. The results in our meta-analysis indicated that CTLA4 +49A/GG allele/AA genotype was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in the Asian population and overall populations PMID: 29970719
  13. The CTLA4 -318/C/T SNP was associated with an increased risk to develop IgAN, while the CT60 G/A genotype significantly associated with the risk for higher proteinuria PMID: 29539619
  14. This review summarizes the current literature relevant to T cell exhaustion in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)related chronic hepatitis, and discusses the roles of CTLA4 in T cell exhaustion. [review] PMID: 29786112
  15. Study provides evidence that CTLA4 +49 A/G (Thr/Ala) polymorphism was strongly associated with T1diabetes in south India. PMID: 29603038
  16. gene polymorphism is associated with psoriasis in Turkish population PMID: 29850619
  17. The mRNA expression of FAS was lower in patients with TP53 mutation than TP53 wild-type. Our findings suggest that TP53 mutation is a potential negative predictor of metastatic melanoma treated with CTLA-4 blockade. PMID: 29793878
  18. TSA results indicated that CTLA-4 +49A/G should be considered as a biomarker for HT, whereas both the CT60 and -318C/T SNPs warrant confirmation by further studies PMID: 29461867
  19. susceptibility to RSA was subject to the synthetic regulation of chromosomal aberrations and genetic mutations within CLTA-4 and Foxp3, suggesting that the conduction of karyotype analysis and genetic detection for RSA patients could effectively guide effective RSA counseling and sound child rearing. PMID: 29476189
  20. CTLA4 missense variant significantly associates with inhibitor development in Argentine patients with severe haemophilia A PMID: 28220572
  21. Study suggests that miR-487a-3p might repress CTLA4 and FOXO3 by binding to their 3'UTRs and contribute to the development of T1D. PMID: 29859273
  22. the expression of mCTLA-4 in skin lesion inversely correlated with the severity of psoriasis and CTLA-4 might play a critical role in the disease severity of psoriasis. PMID: 29305257
  23. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for CTLA4 deficiency with pathogenic mutations resulting in complex immune dysregulation syndromes. PMID: 27102614
  24. Our results suggest that CTLA-4 may be involved in lipid metabolism and affect Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)disease progression and/or the development of diabetic complications although this gene does not represent a major risk factor for T2DM. PMID: 29511375
  25. rs231775, rs4553808 and rs5742909 but not rs3087243 and rs733618 were significantly related to cancer risk. In analyses stratified by ethnicity, both rs231775 and rs4553808 were significant susceptibility polymorphisms in an Asian population but not in a Caucasian population. PMID: 29794444
  26. Paper analyses results of serum cytokines and lymphocyte apoptosis study in nodular goiter against the background of autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid adenoma based on the cell preparedness to apoptosis, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes and the content of proapoptotic tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins in serum, considering the polymorphism of BCL-2, CTLA-4 and APO-1 genes. PMID: 29250672
  27. -318C/T polymorphism of CTLA-4 gene might play a significant role in the development of SLE in the Iranian patients. PMID: 24400885
  28. the immune response to specific miHA mismatches is modulated by the CTLA-4 genotype of the donor PMID: 28827064
  29. It was concluded that the abnormal expression of endometrial E2A existed in mid-secretory endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriage, and there was a positive correlation between E2A and FOXP3, and E2A and CTLA-4, suggesting the possible regulatory role of E2A in endometrium receptivity. PMID: 29270752
  30. This study shows a significant overexpression of CTLA-4 in >50% of breast carcinomas with no such overexpression of CTLA-4 in benign breast tissues. PDL-1 staining is seen in only a small number of invasive ductal carcinomas (4.1%). PMID: 29672601
  31. CTLA4 gene is suggested to correlated with polycyctic ovary syndrome, and influence polycycstic ovary syndrome through regulating obesity and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance in a novel way. PMID: 30024513
  32. We describe three cases of patients with mRCC treated with anti-PD-1 antibody therapy in combination with targeted therapy (bevacizumab), anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 therapy (ipilimumab), or radiotherapy. PMID: 29146617
  33. The CTLA-4c.49A>G and CTLA-4g.319C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms might be considered as low risk susceptibility locus for prostate cancer PMID: 28101800
  34. anti-CTLA4/anti-PD-1/PD-L1 combinations versus anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy was selected as a factor independent of TMB for predicting better RR (77% vs. 21%; P = 0.004) and PFS (P = 0.024). Higher TMB predicts favorable outcome to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade across diverse tumors. PMID: 28835386
  35. Polymorphisms at IL10 (-1082 G>A), IL4 (-589 C>T), CTLA4 (+49A>G), and DAO (+8956 C>G) genes were studied in 55 cases. PMID: 28750137
  36. this study showed that CTLA-4 + 49A/G polymorphism was not correlated with greater genetic risk for leprosy. However, GG genotype was associated with older age, older age of onset and over-representation in male in an Iranian Azeri population. PMID: 29104093
  37. Our meta-analysis suggested that the +49 A/G polymorphism in CTLA4 might be a risk factor for asthma susceptibility, especially in Asian individuals, children, and patients with atopy PMID: 29995780
  38. Genetic polymorphisms of CTLA-4 gene on the nucleotide 49 at codon 17 of exon 1, TSHR gene SNP rs2268458 of intron 1, number of regulatory T cells and TRAb levels play a role as risk factors for relapse in patients with Graves' disease. PMID: 29093229
  39. These results demonstrate that POSTN promotes the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and that CTLA4 enhances the ectopic osteogenesis of MSCs-CTLA4-based tissue-engineered bone. PMID: 28687929
  40. the polymorphism -318C/T of CTLA-4 gene is associated with RBC alloimmunization among sickle cell disease patients. This highlights the role played by CTLA-4 on post-transfusion alloantibody development PMID: 28815969
  41. Meta-analysis found that CTLA4 -318C/T gene polymorphism is not associated with the risk of acute rejection in renal transplantation in overall populations. PMID: 28449371
  42. Our goal was to stimulate antitumor immunity by combining SS1P or LMB-100 with anti-CTLA-4. We constructed a BALB/c breast cancer cell line expressing human mesothelin (66C14-M), which was implanted in one or two locations. SS1P or LMB-100 was injected directly into established tumors and anti-CTLA-4 administered i.p. In mice with two tumors, one tumor was injected with immunotoxin and the other was not. PMID: 28674083
  43. Taken together, we found that Id3+ and CTLA-4+ endometrial cells were significantly higher in women with repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage, suggesting the negative roles of these angiogenesis and immune tolerance markers involving in regulating endometrium receptivity. PMID: 28224680
  44. study indicated that the polymorphisms of rs231775 and rs231725 would be the risk factors of Primary Biliary Cholangitis [meta-analysis] PMID: 28642883
  45. Suggest that genetic polymorphisms of CTLA-4 function as sex-dependent risk factors for development of acute rejection in an Iranian kidney transplant population. PMID: 28031007
  46. A phase Ib study of dasatinib plus ipilimumab in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and other sarcomas was performed on the basis of preclinical data demonstrating that combined KIT and CTLA-4 blockade is synergistic. PMID: 28007774
  47. The data we presented here showed that CTLA-4 was highly expressed in regulatory T cells and PD-1 decreased in CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of SCLC patients, suggesting their unique mechanisms involved in immune regulation. PMID: 29167005
  48. Significant differences in the CpG-methylation patterns between tumor tissues and matched controls were observed for CTLA4 showing a decreased methylation of this gene in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Expression studies confirmed that hypomethylation also resulted in increased expression of CTLA4. PMID: 28503213
  49. The polymorphisms +49 G/A, -1661 A/G and -318 C/T may elevate the susceptibility to BC, but the polymorphism CT60 G/A may offer protection against the cancer. PMID: 28416762
  50. In children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), serum CTLA-4 concentration significantly increased at remission compared with onset. Furthermore, a positive significant correlation was observed between Treg number and serum CTLA-4 level. This suggests that Treg and CTLA-4 are involved in the induction of remission in INS. PMID: 28544686
  51. The Genetic analysis of this study revealed that the very early onset JMG had a more prominent genetic predisposition in an immunomodulating gene (CTLA4). PMID: 28364296
  52. Association between CTLA4 G allele/GG genotype and acute rejection risk in renal transplantation was found in this meta-analysis (G allele: OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.44, P=.02; GG genotype: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.10-1.69, P=.004). However, the AA genotype was not associated with acute rejection risk in renal transplantation. PMID: 28333403
  53. CTLA-4 polymorphisms are significant risk factors for transplant-related mortality and survival in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and should be evaluated in further trials. PMID: 29335768
  54. Review/Meta-analysis: CTLA4 +49A/G polymorphisms increased the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children, and can be considered to be a genetic marker for T1D in children. PMID: 28060767
  55. Information regarding CTLA-4 polymorphisms and haplotypes may be used to improve multiple myeloma therapy. PMID: 29264740
  56. CTLA-4 gene polymorphism is associated with kidney allograft dysfunction. PMID: 27081086
  57. the 'GG/G' of CTLA4 +49AG SNP, HLA-DRB1*11/-DRB1*12 (DR5) alleles and the combinations of DRB1*11/DRB1*12 alleles with AG/GG genotype and DRB1*04/07/12 alleles with GG genotype may act as synergistic manner to confer the strong susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases in south India PMID: 29174716
  58. regulatory effect of the mannose receptor (MR) was mediated by a direct interaction with CD45 on the T cell, inhibiting its phosphatase activity, which resulted in up-regulation of CTLA-4 and the induction of T-cell tolerance. Inhibition of CD45 prevented expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), a transcriptional inhibitor that directly bound the CTLA-4 promoter and regulated its activity PMID: 27601670
  59. The results of our study suggest no significant association between CD28 rs1980422, CCL5 rs2107538, CTLA-4 exon 1 +49A>G rs231775 and rs3087243 gene polymorphisms and RA in the Polish population. PMID: 27988812
  60. Results showed that high CTLA4 but low PD-1 expression were associated with a poor overall survival of patients with breast cancer. PMID: 28488141
  61. These results indicate that CTLA-4 expression in the tumor environment of esophageal carcinoma is associated with poorer prognosis PMID: 27050369
  62. Of several immunotherapies being investigated, antibodies that target the programmed cell death protein-1 (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (ipilimumab) immune checkpoint pathways are among the most promising for patients with Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and are the focus of this review. PMID: 27354668
  63. In oncology, the two main classes of Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI), which are the most advanced in clinical development are the anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies (Abs). Three of these Abs have been approved by the FDA for clinical use.CPI can have efficacy across several types of cancer. PMID: 27122549
  64. No significant associations with RHD were found for the IL1RN rs447713 and CTLA4 rs3087243 SNPs. PMID: 27400406
  65. Data show that interleukin-21-primed cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes (CTL) with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) blockade is safe and produces durable clinical responses. PMID: 27269940
  66. Analysis of copy number alterations identified a higher burden of copy number loss in nonresponders to CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade and found that it was associated with decreased expression of genes in immune-related pathways. PMID: 28251903
  67. the upregulation of others syncytial molecules, including LAG3, CTLA4, CD28 and CD3, assisting the formation of syncytia with APC cells. PMID: 27108398
  68. Tregs were observed to regulate CD4(+), but not CD8(+), T cell infiltration into tumors through a CTLA-4/CD80 dependent mechanism. Disrupting CTLA-4 interaction with CD80 was sufficient to induce CD4 T cell infiltration into tumors. PMID: 28856392
  69. Our study reports a novel association of SNPs within CD86 and CTLA4 genes with pemphigus. The CD86 rs1129055 A allele appears to confer susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris but not to pemphigus foliaceus. PMID: 28274366
  70. nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with high tumor CTLA-4 expression had a poorer prognosis than those with low expression. PMID: 26918337
  71. CTLA-4 expressing Th17 cells may present regulatory activities in pancreatic cancer patients. PMID: 28942020
  72. Data show there was an independent negative prognostic impact of cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (T-CTLA-4) expression in metastatic lymph nodes. PMID: 28707078
  73. High CTLA4 expression is associated with B-cell lymphoma. PMID: 28716895
  74. In this discovery cohort, the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 emerged as the best predictor of response. Patients whose tumors had at least 20% of CD8+ T cells expressing these two markers had a median progression-free survival of 31.6 months, versus 9.6 months for patients with less than 20% of this subtype among their tumor CD8+ cells PMID: 27655434
  75. +49A>G and CT60A>G polymorphisms were associated with the efficacy of postoperative I-131 treatment for DTC; and they might be bioindicators related to the prognosis of I-131 treatment. PMID: 28326838
  76. Review/Meta-analysis: CTLA-4 may not be a major susceptibility locus in humans with ankylosing spondylitis. PMID: 26176417
  77. Treg cells expand in both humans and mice in blood-stage malaria and interfere with conventional T helper cell responses and follicular T helper (TFH)-B cell interactions in germinal centers. Mechanistically, Treg cells function in a critical temporal window to impede protective immunity through cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4). PMID: 28892065
  78. This review focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of immune-related toxicity of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies PMID: 28497847
  79. The CTLA-4 blockade may restore Th1 function in patients with COPD and so aid the clearance of bacterial pathogens responsible for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID: 28190271
  80. High CTLA4 expression is associated with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 28038471
  81. AUthors observed a significant correlation between the proportion of Tregs and (in)CTLA-4+ Tregs with IL-17A concentration in clBALF. Data confirmed significant differences in the proportion of regulatory elements between cancerous lung and healthy lung and PB and the usefulness of BALF analysis in evaluation of immune response regulation in local lung cancer environment. PMID: 27866241
  82. CTLA-4 was expressed and functional on human breast cancer cells through influencing maturation and function of DCs in vitro, and CTLA-4 blockage not only recovered the antigen-presenting function of DCs and T-cells activation but also suppressed the biological activity of breast cancer cells themselves. PMID: 28099147
  83. For anti-CTLA4 therapy, there were no data retrievable on clinical efficacy. Although data on clinical efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic bladder cancer are currently limited, the efficacy of these drugs might depend mainly on the metastatic volume and immune system integrity. Patients with PD-L1 positive tumors and non-visceral metastases seem to derive the highest benefit from therapy. PMID: 27380916
  84. interpreting the functional significance of mutations in the CTLA-4 pathway identified by gene-sequencing approaches PMID: 28159733
  85. In multivariable analysis, patients receiving cord blood units with GG-CTLA4 genotype had poorer neutrophil recovery, increased non-relapse mortality, and inferior disease-free survival. PMID: 27811020
  86. CTLA-4(+) microvesicles can competitively bind B7 costimulatory molecules on bystander dendritic cells, resulting in downregulation of B7 surface expression. PMID: 26979751
  87. CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism is not associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). PMID: 28302200
  88. Combined IL-21-primed polyclonal CTL plus CTLA4 blockade controls refractory metastatic melanoma in a patient PMID: 27242164
  89. CTLA-4g was an independent Graves' disease risk factor. Sporadic Graves' disease was related to presence of CTLA-4c allele variant. Familial background of the disease was exclusively associated with CTLA-4g genotype. PMID: 27638540
  90. High CTLA4 Circulating Levels are associated with Breast Cancer. PMID: 27381613
  91. The CTLA4-CD28 gene fusion is likely a major contributor to the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas and represents a potential target for anti-CTLA4 cancer immunotherapy. PMID: 26819049
  92. this study shows that in fresh Tregs the level of soluble CTLA4 is half of that of full-length CTLA4, whereas in expanded cells sCTLA4 level is tenfold lower PMID: 27140408
  93. findings indicate that CTLA-4 (+49 A/G) and (-318 C/T) genotypes could be considered as genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility or protection for type 2 diabetes. PMID: 27424137
  94. This study reveals a significant association between SNPs in PTPN22, CTLA-4 gene and AR with asthma in Chinese Han children, which might be susceptibility factors for Allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID: 27917628
  95. Differences in gene expression for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) were not statistically significant before and after anti-CTLA4 Ipilimumab treatment. PMID: 27918555
  96. Reduced CTLA4 secretion and specific CTLA4 variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic recurrent miscarriages. PMID: 27351445
  97. we found that rs231775 is strongly associated with autoimmune disease incidence in a homozygote comparison (GG vs. AA, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.382-2.401), in a heterozygote comparison (AG vs. AA, 95% CI 1.151-1.611), in an allelic model (T allele vs. G allele, 95% CI 1.109-1.441), in a dominant model (GG/AG vs. AA, 95% CI 1.220-1.787), and in a recessive model (GG vs. AA/AG, 95% CI 1.128-1.661). PMID: 28384040
  98. ver-expression of CTLA4 and IDO1 was significantly associated with biochemical recurrence. Our results provide clues on the mechanisms of tumor development and point to potential biomarkers for early detection and treatment for prostate cancer in young men. PMID: 28027300
  99. Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 were found within tumor from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients. PMID: 28423034
  100. Immune checkpoint proteins are co-inhibitory factors that can diminish the antigen-specific immune responses by attenuating the regulatory role of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death-1, lymphocyte-activation gene 3, and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3. PMID: 28349816

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Involvement in disease Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 12 (IDDM12); Celiac disease 3 (CELIAC3); Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome 5 (ALPS5)
Subcellular Location Cell membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein
Tissue Specificity Widely expressed with highest levels in lymphoid tissues. Detected in activated T-cells where expression levels are 30- to 50-fold less than CD28, the stimulatory coreceptor, on the cell surface following activation.
Database Links

HGNC: 2505

OMIM: 109100

KEGG: hsa:1493

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000303939

UniGene: Hs.247824

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