Recombinant Human Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1(CD274),partial (Active)

In Stock
Code CSB-MP878942HU1
Size US$238
  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
  • Activity
    Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized PD-L1 at 2 μg/ml can bind Anti- PD-L1 mouse monoclonal antibody(CSB-MA878942A1m,antigen from E.coli), the EC50 of human PD-L1 protein is 1.252-1.653 ng/mL. Biological Activity Assay
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/ug as determined by LAL method.
Activity Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized PD-L1 at 2 μg/ml can bind Anti- PD-L1 mouse monoclonal antibody(CSB-MA878942A1m,antigen from E.coli), the EC50 of human PD-L1 protein is 1.252-1.653 ng/mL.
Target Names CD274
Uniprot No. Q9NZQ7
Research Area Cancer
Alternative Names B7 H; B7 H1; B7 homolog 1; B7-H1; B7H; B7H1; CD 274; CD274; CD274 antigen; CD274 molecule; MGC142294; MGC142296; OTTHUMP00000021029 ; PD L1; PD-L1; PD1L1_HUMAN; PDCD1 ligand 1; PDCD1L1; PDCD1LG1; PDL 1; PDL1; Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1; Programmed death ligand 1; RGD1566211
Molecular Characterization
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Mammalian cell
Expression Region 19-238aa
Mol. Weight 52.7 kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info C-terminal FC-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered PBS, 6% Trehalose, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Involved in the costimulatory signal, essential for T-cell proliferation and production of IL10 and IFNG, in an IL2-dependent and a PDCD1-independent manner. Interaction with PDCD1 inhibits T-cell proliferation and cytokine production.
Gene References into Functions
  1. an HBV-pSTAT3-SALL4-miR-200c axis regulates PD-L1 causing T cell exhaustion PMID: 29593314
  2. hypothesized that an oncolytic poxvirus would attract T cells into the tumour, and induce PD-L1 expression in cancer and immune cells, leading to more susceptible targets for anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy PMID: 28345650
  3. multivariate Cox hazards regression analysis identified ALCAM and PD-L1 (both P < 0.01) as potential independent risk factors for primary diffuse pleural mesotheliomas PMID: 28811252
  4. miR-191-5p was identified to have negative correlation with PD-L1 expression and acted as an independent prognostic factor of OS in patients with colon adenocarcinoma. PMID: 30045644
  5. our findings suggest a regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 through data analysis, in vitro and vivo experiments, which is an important factor of immune evasion in GC cells, and CXCL9/10/11-CXCR3 could regulate PD-L1 expression through STAT and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in GC cells. PMID: 29690901
  6. CD163(+)CD204(+) Tumor-associated macrophages possibly play a key role in the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma by T-cell regulation via IL-10 and PD-L1 production. PMID: 28496107
  7. Results demonstrated that the expression of PDL1 in colorectal carcinoma tissue was significantly increased compared with the paracancerous tissue. Blocking PDL1 can inhibit tumor growth by activating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells involved in the immune response. PMID: 30272332
  8. miR-574-3p was identified to potentially regulate PD-L1 expression in chordoma, which inversely correlated with PD-L1. Positive PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was associated with advanced stages and TILs infiltration, whereas decreased miR-574-3p level correlated with higher muscle invasion, more severe tumor necrosis and poor patient survival. PMID: 29051990
  9. PD-L1 expression was detected in 69% of cases of primary melanoma of the vulva PMID: 28914674
  10. PD-L1 tumor cell expression is strongly associated with increased HIF-2alpha expression and presence of dense lymphocytic infiltration in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 30144808
  11. Different Signaling Pathways in Regulating PD-L1 Expression in EGFR Mutated Lung Adenocarcinoma PMID: 30454551
  12. PD-L1, Ki-67, and p53 staining individually had significant prognostic value for patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer PMID: 28782638
  13. Challenging PD-L1 expressing cytotoxic T cells as a predictor for response to immunotherapy in melanoma PMID: 30050132
  14. Our results confirm and extend prior studies of PD-L1 and provide new data of PD-L2 expression in lymphomas PMID: 29122656
  15. Positive PD-L1 expression is indicative of worse clinical outcome in Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 28522811
  16. PD-L1 expression in cancer cells is upregulated in response to DNA double-strand break. PMID: 29170499
  17. Targeting PD-L1 Protein is an efficient anti-cancer immunotherapy strategy. (Review) PMID: 30264678
  18. Suggest that PD-L1 may play a relevant role in metastatic spread and may be a candidate prognostic biomarker in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 29742559
  19. PD-L1 immunostaining scoring for non-small cell lung cancer based on immunosurveillance parameters. PMID: 29874226
  20. SLC18A1 might complement other biomarkers currently under study in relation to programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death protein ligand 1 inhibition PMID: 30194079
  21. Low PDL1 expression is associated with mammary and extra-mammary Paget disease. PMID: 29943071
  22. Low PDL1 mRNA expression is associated with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PMID: 29150702
  23. we found that in advanced stage NSCLC patients who received nivolumab, the C allele of PD-L1 rs4143815 and the G allele of rs2282055 were significantly associated with better ORR and PFS. This is the first report that PD-L1 SNP, which was thought to increase PD-L1 expression, is associated with a response to nivolumab. PMID: 28332580
  24. PD-L1 expression differs between the two components of lung ASCs. Given the complexity of lung ASCs, their treatment outcomes may be improved by administration of both EGFR TKIs and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in cases where EGFR mutations are present and PD-L1 is overexpressed. PMID: 28387300
  25. IDO and B7-H1 expressions were observed in patients with pancreatic carcinoma tissues and are important markers for PC malignant progression PMID: 30029936
  26. There was higher programmed cell death protein ligand-1(PD-L1) expression in post-treatment EBV DNA-positive patients. Post-treatment positive EBV DNA status maybe a useful biomarker of worse outcomes in early stage -stage extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma. PMID: 30116872
  27. PD-L1 is a critical TTP-regulated factor that contributes to inhibiting antitumor immunity. PMID: 29936792
  28. Structural and functional analyses unexpectedly reveal an N-terminal loop outside the IgV domain of PD-1. This loop is not involved in recognition of PD-L1 but dominates binding to nivolumab, whereas N-glycosylation is not involved in binding at all. PMID: 28165004
  29. While mutational analysis appeared similar to that of older patients with OCSCC who lack a smoking history, a comparatively high degree of PD-L1 expression and PD-1/L1 concordance (P=0.001) was found among young female OCSCC patients. PMID: 28969885
  30. PD-L1 expression is predictive of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, irrespective of rituximab treatment. PMID: 29748856
  31. PD-L1 expression was augmented on CD8+ T cells in BALF of a patient with smoldering adult T-cell lymphoma and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. This suggested that the PD-1-PD-L1 system may suppress not only antitumor immunity but also host defense against pathogens and thereby allow establishment of chronic HTLV-1 infection and immunodeficiency. PMID: 28967040
  32. MUC1 drives PD-L1 expression in triple-negative breast cancer cells. PMID: 29263152
  33. Positive PD-L1 expression was found in 36.8% of inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) samples but was not significantly associated with the clinicopathologic variables examined. Worse overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with positive PD-L1, negative estrogen receptor, and triple-negative status. The 5-year OS rate was 36.4% for patients with PD-L1-positive IBC and 47.3% for those with PD-L1-negative. PMID: 29425258
  34. PD-L1 expression display a highly variable distribution in clear cell renal cell carcinomas and this particularity should be kept in mind when selecting the tumor samples to be tested for immunotherapy. PMID: 29661736
  35. Report relatively low level PD-L1 positivity in treatment-naive acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma. PMID: 30257853
  36. High PD-L1 expression is associated with pulmonary metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 29937180
  37. these data suggest that DNA-damage signaling is insufficient for upregulating PD-L1 in normal human dermal fibroblasts PMID: 29859207
  38. High CD274 expression is associated with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PMID: 28669079
  39. This study provides important evidence of higher levels of agreement of PD-L1 expression in pulmonary metastasis compared with in multiple primary lung cancer, and high positivity of PD-L1 expression in pulmonary metastatic lesions with wild-type EGFR in an Asian population. PMID: 29254651
  40. High PD-L1 expression is associated with Mycobacterium avium complex-induced lung disease. PMID: 28169347
  41. PD-L1 expression in tumor-associated immune cells may be associated with a higher probability of clinical response to avelumab in metastatic breast cancer PMID: 29063313
  42. The expression of PDL1 was significantly increased following treatment with gefitinib. PMID: 29901173
  43. These results demonstrated that the IFNGinduced immunosuppressive properties of B7H1 in human BM and WJMSCs were mediated by STAT1 signaling, and not by PI3K/RACalpha serine/threonineprotein kinase signaling PMID: 29901104
  44. PD-1/PD-L1 expression is a frequent occurrence in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system. PMID: 29037958
  45. High CD274 expression is associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. PMID: 30275195
  46. Studied expression levels of CD274 molecule (PD-L1) in thymic epithelial tumors. Found PD-L1 expression level correlated with the degree of TET malignancy. PMID: 29850538
  47. Authors assessed PD-L1 expression in both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the tumor specimens (complete histological sections, not tissue microarray). PMID: 28420659
  48. We conclude that a subgroup of advanced disease ovarian cancer patients with high grade tumors, expressing PD-L1, may be prime candidates for immunotherapy targeting PD-1 signaling PMID: 29843813
  49. PD-L1 expression is a prognostic factor related with poor survival among patients that developed non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 29614306
  50. The inhibition of PTEN also reduced the cancer effects of CD4+ T cells on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines following miR-142-5p downregulation. Therefore, our study demonstrated that miR-142-5p regulated CD4+ T cells in human NSCLC through PD-L1 expression via the PTEN pathway. PMID: 29767245
  51. Thus, PD-L1 mRNA expression in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma was associated with BIM and VEGFA mRNA expression and with shorter PFS after gefitinib therapy. PMID: 29767258
  52. The expression of PD-L1 in breast-invasive ductal carcinoma was significantly increased, and it was related to histological grading, clinical staging, and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. PMID: 29516978
  53. Neither IL-17 nor IL-22, cytokines essential in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis, alters PD-L1 expression in HaCaT cells. PMID: 27897321
  54. PD-L1 expression and RAS status may be the prognostic indicators for metastatic Colorectal Cancer patients with palliative operation. PMID: 29662888
  55. PD-L1 mRNA can be detected and quantitated in circulating tumor RNA of cancer patients. PMID: 29679564
  56. expression of PD-L1 by lymphoma cells and tumor-associated macrophages mediate the trafficking of tumor-associated macrophages, which may explain the immune-escape process of tumor-associated macrophages. PMID: 29067721
  57. Study indicated that PD-L1 expression is a negative prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The results also indicate PD-L1 expression was associated more aggressive clinical features in patients with RCC. PMID: 29362922
  58. Study in human tumour tissues and cancer cell lines novel interchange between glycosylation and phosphorylation regulating ubiquitination and degradation of PD-L1. This regulatory event is critical for basal-like breast cancer cells that escape immune surveillance via PD-L1/PD-1 interaction. PMID: 27572267
  59. High CD274 expression is associated with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 29549910
  60. High CD274 expression is associated with melanoma. PMID: 29286146
  61. the binding affinities of the PD-1-PD-L1/PD-L2 co-inhibitory receptor system, was characterized. PMID: 27447090
  62. High CD274 expression is associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 29328389
  63. Twenty-nine percent (n = 2/7) of the PD-L1 positive Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas also co-expressed IDO1 PMID: 29372535
  64. Results indicated that three functional polymorphisms of the PD-L1 gene were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk and prognosis. PMID: 29940275
  65. this study showed that blood level of PD-L1 increased during pregnancy PMID: 29205636
  66. Findings suggest that patients with programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive tumors may have poor clinical outcomes in malignant salivary gland tumors. PMID: 29409471
  67. PD-1 rs2227982 C>T and PD-L1 rs4143815 C>G polymorphisms increased the risk of ovarian cancer, leading to a poor prognosis, associated with low expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1. PMID: 29171986
  68. It was shown that the expression of CD274, Il-10, and FOXP3 was closely correlated with the clinical characteristics of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, including lymph node metastasis and prognosis. PMID: 29257349
  69. High PD-L1 Expression is associated with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. PMID: 29079455
  70. MiR-195 regulated immune response of DLBCL through targeting PD-L1. PMID: 29247952
  71. We expected that in vitro PD1/PD-L1 signal that has been optimized in this study will serve as a valuable protocol for preclinical studies involving PD1/PD-L1 pathway. PMID: 29252078
  72. PD-L1-positive tumor cells and M2-type tumor-associated macrophages may contribute to tumor invasion and immune escape at the invasive front. PMID: 29044503
  73. High-PD-L1 expression and low tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. PMID: 28488168
  74. High CD274 expression is associated with high grade and more stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and lymph node metastases of triple negative breast cancer. PMID: 29291717
  75. Radiotherapy could up-regulate the PD-L1 expression through the pathways downstream of EGFR in glioma. PMID: 29396299
  76. High PD-L1 Expression is associated with Lung Adenocarcinoma. PMID: 29127022
  77. Programmed death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) rs2890658 A/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) might be used as risk marker of the susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) for the Han nationality in a high-incidence population from Northern China. PMID: 29060926
  78. Data suggest that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) cannot be recommended for the use as a predictive biomarker of BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi)-based therapy in BRAF V600-mutated metastatic melanoma (MM). PMID: 29195116
  79. PD-L1 expression correlates with poorly differentiated medullary cancers in the Lynch-syndrome-associated colorectal cancer in Japanese patients. PMID: 29327160
  80. PD-L1 expression is associated with disease stage and type of EGFR mutation. PD-L1 positivity might be associated with worse RFS among patients with surgically treated EGFR-mutant NSCLC. PMID: 28301925
  81. Data indicate that nuclear H2A histone family, member X protein (gammaH2AX) expression is positively associated with the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in lung squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 29275316
  82. Globo H expression was correlated with specific driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors, as well as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). PMID: 29036791
  83. We describe a subset of non-small-cell lung cancer patients who had JAK2 amplifications resulting in high expression of PD-L1 PMID: 28795418
  84. MMP-13 plays a critical role in the shedding/cleavage of PD-L1 in the human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.The regulation of PD-L1 expression in the tumour micro-environment by matrix metalloproteinases. PMID: 29345283
  85. subset of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer -associated colorectal cancers in this study clearly showed PD-L1 expression of tumor epithelia and immune cells PMID: 29033182
  86. A circulating tumour cell (CTC) PD-L1 assay could be developed as a companion diagnostic tool to potentially predict the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade treatments PMID: 29224824
  87. Treatment of lung cancer cell lines with a COX2 inhibitor had no impact on PD-L1 expression. PMID: 30061230
  88. summarizes current literature data on the heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression and the relationship with such factors and with clinicopathological features of non-small cell lung cancer.[review] PMID: 29970498
  89. Alteration of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway can modulate Treg/Th17 balance in asthmatic children. PMID: 29874664
  90. the expression of PD-L1 in both tumor cells and microenvironment is associated with the non-GCB-subtype DLBCL. PMID: 29246182
  91. High expression of PD-L1 is associated with pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer. PMID: 29663398
  92. This study shows a significant overexpression of CTLA-4 in >50% of breast carcinomas with no such overexpression of CTLA-4 in benign breast tissues. PDL-1 staining is seen in only a small number of invasive ductal carcinomas (4.1%). PMID: 29672601
  93. These data suggest that the expression of immunosuppressive molecules, including PD-1 ligands and IDO1, by macrophage/microglia may be involved in immune evasion of lymphoma cells. PMID: 29998979
  94. MiR-424 regulates the PD-L1/PD-1 and CD80/CTLA-4 pathways in chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID: 27147225
  95. High PDL1 expression is associated with the increase in the ability of surviving breast cancer cells to evade innate and adaptive immunity. PMID: 29367423
  96. High expression of CD274 is associated with pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung. PMID: 29601633
  97. anti-CTLA4/anti-PD-1/PD-L1 combinations versus anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy was selected as a factor independent of TMB for predicting better RR (77% vs. 21%; P = 0.004) and PFS (P = 0.024). Higher TMB predicts favorable outcome to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade across diverse tumors. PMID: 28835386
  98. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry requires considerable expertise and specific training of pathologists. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC)can be a companion or complementary diagnostic test depending on the clone employed, the molecular therapy prescribed and the indication of use. PMID: 29069958
  99. results indicate that lung cancer cell lines with EGFR mutations (parental cells) do not harbor high PD-L1 protein expression. In addition, EGFR phosphorylation affects PD-L1 expression after acquisition of resistance to EGFR-TKIs. PMID: 29119113
  100. The majority of OCs were PD-1-positive in intratumoral lymphocytes regardless of MMR status; while MMR-negative OCs exhibited significantly increased CD3+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and PD-L1+ intratumoral immune cells compared to MMR-proficient OCs. PMID: 29496294

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Subcellular Location Isoform 1: Cell membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Endomembrane system, Single-pass type I membrane protein
Protein Families Immunoglobulin superfamily, BTN/MOG family
Tissue Specificity Highly expressed in the heart, skeletal muscle, placenta and lung. Weakly expressed in the thymus, spleen, kidney and liver. Expressed on activated T- and B-cells, dendritic cells, keratinocytes and monocytes.
Database Links

HGNC: 17635

OMIM: 605402

KEGG: hsa:29126

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000370989

UniGene: Hs.521989

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