Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), also known as B7-H1 and CD274, is the ligand of PD-1. In human, the PD-L1 gene is located on chromosome 9p24, and in mice, it is located on chromosome 19B.
Structure of PD - L1
Human PD-L1 gene encodes a 290-amino acid type I transmembrane glycoprotein, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is composed of extracellular segment, hydrophobic transmembrane region and 30 amino acid short cytoplasmic domain.
The extracellular domain contains an immunoglobulin homeostasis domain (IgC) and an immunoglobulin alternations domain (IgV), and the cytoplasmic domain contains a protein kinase C phosphorylation site.
PD-L1 has a variety of transcription forms, including 1.8, 3.7, 4.2, 7.2 kb. 4.2 kb mRNA is the main form of transcription. They have the same coding products, and the products have similar functions.
The Expression of PD - L1
PD-L1 is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells, macrophages, T cells, B cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other cells. In non-hematopoietic systems, PD-L1 is expressed on the surface of vascular endothelial cells, epithelial cells, islet cells, skeletal muscle cells, embryonic trophoblast cells and other cells.
The Function of PD - L1
PD-L1 binds with PD-1 on the T cell membrane to produce inhibitory signals, which can prevent the proliferation of CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells and the production of cytokines, change the tumor microenvironment, weaken the body's ability to monitor and remove tumor cells, and produce immune escape.
Tumor-related PD-L1 can promote the apoptosis of activated T cells and stimulate the production of IL-10 in human peripheral blood T cells to regulate immunosuppression. PD-L1 can also act as a receptor on the surface of tumor cells and interact with PD-1 on the surface of T cells to induce endogenous tolerance and avoid being killed by T cells. Injection of PD-L1 monoclonal antibody can repair the function of effector T cells (Teff).
PD-L1 plays a key role in immune tolerance and regulation of autoreactive T and B cells.
Antibody Drugs Targeting PD-1/PD-L1
Antibodies acting on the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway are divided into two categories, including anti-PD-1 antibodies and anti-PD-L1 antibodies.
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Popular Products of CD274 (PD-L1)
● Recombinant Human Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (CD274),partial (Active) (CSB-MP878942HU1)
Purity determined by SDS-PAGE
Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Excellent Bioactivity Validated by Functional ELISA
Immobilized PD-L1 at 2 μg/ml can bind Anti- PD-L1 mouse monoclonal antibody (CSB-MA878942A1m), the EC50 of human PD-L1 protein is 1.252-1.653 ng/ml.
● PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody (ELISA, WB, IHC, IF, FC) (CSB-MA878942A0m)
Positive WB detected in: A549 whole cell lysate, PC-3 whole cell lysate, HepG2 whole cell lysate, MCF-7 whole cell lysate, Hela whole cell lysate
IHC image of CSB-MA878942A0m diluted at 1:100 and staining in paraffin-embedded human colon cancer performed on a Leica BondTM system.
IF staining of Hela cells with CSB-MA878942A0m at 1:100, counter-stained with DAPI.
Overlay histogram showing 293 cells stained with CSB-MA878942A0m (red line) at 1:150.
● PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody (ELISA, WB, IHC, IF, FC) (CSB-MA878942A1m)
Positive WB detected in: A549 whole cell lysate, PC-3 whole cell lysate, HepG2 whole cell lysate, MCF-7 whole cell lysate, 293 whole cell lysate, Hela whole cell lysate
IHC image of CSB-MA878942A1m diluted at 1:100 and staining in paraffin-embedded human colon cancer performed on a Leica BondTM system.
IF staining of Hela cells with CSB-MA878942A1m at 1:150, counter-stained with DAPI.
Overlay histogram showing A549 cells stained with CSB-MA878942A1m (red line) at 1:300.