In the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, activated phospholipase C (PLC) by the binding extracellular signal molecule to the receptor on the cell surface catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) into two secondary messengers IP3 (inositol triphosphate) and (diacylglycerol) DAG, which both convert extracellular signal into intracellular signal. The signal conduction system is the phosphatidylinositol signaling system. It is also called the double messenger system.
The phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol by lipid kinases leads to the production of phosphoinositides such as PI3P, PI(4,5)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3, etc. The phosphoinositides are involved in many signaling pathways such as the PI3K-Akt pathway that mediates cell proliferation, survival, and metabolism. In addition, phosphoinositide signaling also mediates many cell activities like cell migration, endocytosis, membrane dynamics, etc.
The phosphatidylinositol signaling system mainly comprises the receptors, G proteins, and effectors. PLC-β is the most detailed and thorough effector studied at present. Signal molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, etc. can bind to the receptors of the phosphatidylinositol signaling system, initiating subsequent signaling cascades.
Extracellular signaling molecules such as hormones bind to the G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface, which leads to the alterations in G protein conformation, activating PLC (PLC-β) on the plasma membrane. Active PLC hydrolyzes PIP2 into IP3 and DAG.
IP3 combines with the IP3-sensitive Ca2+ channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and opens the Ca2+ channel, causing Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Upon binding to Ca2+, calmodulin (CaM) changes in its conformation, which activates the calmodulin-dependent kinase. The activation of CaM-kinase further activates various target proteins, stimulating the occurrence of Ca2+ signaling pathway that mediates many cellular life activities such as inflammation, metabolism, apoptosis, intracellular motion, fertilization, short-term ＆ long-term memory, and immune response.
On the other hand, ER-released Ca2+ elevates intracellular Ca2+ level, translocating protein kinase C (PKC) from cytosol to the internal surface of the plasma membrane, where PKC is activated by DAG. So Ca2+ is also known as the third messenger. Activated PKC can phosphorylate many protein substrates, inducing a variety of different cellular responses such as cell secretion, muscle contraction, and cell proliferation ＆ differentiation.
|PLCD1||PLCD1 Antibody||PLCD1 Protein||PLCD1 cDNA||PLCD1 ELISA Kit|
|PLCD3||PLCD3 Antibody||PLCD3 Protein||PLCD3 cDNA||PLCD3 ELISA Kit|
|PLCD4||PLCD4 Antibody||PLCD4 Protein||PLCD4 cDNA||PLCD4 ELISA Kit|
|PLCE1||PLCE1 Antibody||PLCE1 Protein||PLCE1 cDNA||PLCE1 ELISA Kit|
|PLCG1||PLCG1 Antibody||PLCG1 Protein||PLCG1 cDNA||PLCG1 ELISA Kit|
|PLCG2||PLCG2 Antibody||PLCG2 Protein||PLCG2 cDNA||PLCG2 ELISA Kit|
|PLCZ1||PLCZ1 Antibody||PLCZ1 Protein||PLCZ1 cDNA||PLCZ1 ELISA Kit|
|PPIP5K1||PPIP5K1 Antibody||PPIP5K1 Protein||PPIP5K1 cDNA||PPIP5K1 ELISA Kit|
|PPIP5K2||PPIP5K2 Antibody||PPIP5K2 Protein||PPIP5K2 cDNA||PPIP5K2 ELISA Kit|
|PRKCA||PRKCA Antibody||PRKCA Protein||PRKCA cDNA||PRKCA ELISA Kit|
|PRKCB||PRKCB Antibody||PRKCB Protein||PRKCB cDNA||PRKCB ELISA Kit|
|PRKCG||PRKCG Antibody||PRKCG Protein||PRKCG cDNA||PRKCG ELISA Kit|
|PTEN||PTEN Antibody||PTEN Protein||PTEN cDNA||PTEN ELISA Kit|
|SACM1L||SACM1L Antibody||SACM1L Protein||SACM1L cDNA||SACM1L ELISA Kit|
|SYNJ1||SYNJ1 Antibody||SYNJ1 Protein||SYNJ1 cDNA||SYNJ1 ELISA Kit|
|SYNJ2||SYNJ2 Antibody||SYNJ2 Protein||SYNJ2 cDNA||SYNJ2 ELISA Kit|