The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates both intracellular and extracellular signals and plays an important role in multiple cellular functions, such as cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival.
mTOR signaling controls several fundamental biological processes including translation and turnover of proteins, lipid and glucose metabolism, cellular growth, proliferation, survival, autophagy, cytoskeleton organization, etc. Aberrant mTOR signaling has been linked to the pathophysiology of diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
Rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved atypical serine/threonine protein kinase. mTORC links with proteins to form two multi-protein complexes serves as a core component of two distinct protein complexes, the mTOR complex (mTORC) 1 and mTORC2. The two distinct protein complex regulate different celluar processes.
As a core component of both complexes, mTOR functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, autophagy, and transcription.
The two complexes contain two same parts, mLST8/GβL and DEPTOR. Besides the two parts, mTORC1 also contains Raptor and PRAS40 proteins, wherein Raptor interacts with the target of rapamycin signaling (TOS) motifs of mTOR substrates in a rapamycin-sensitive manner to activate this complex.
Contrastingly, mTORC2 also contains Rictor, mSIN1, and Protor1/2, and the functional activity of mTORC2 is dependent on Rictor and mSIN1. mTOR signaling can be activated by upstream signals including growth factors (e.g., Insulin, IGF1), cellular stress, metabolism/energy state (e.g., O2 and ATP/ADP), amino acid nutrients (e.g., Leucine and Arginine), and neurotransmitters (e.g., Neuropeptides and Glutamate).
The mTOR pathway is one of the most studied signaling pathways and is involved in trauma and various diseases in the CNS. mTOR signaling is affected in a number of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cerebral stroke and Huntington's disease, and inhibition of mTOR activity can reduce the neurodegeneration associated with these conditions.
|CHUK||CHUK Antibody||CHUK Protein||CHUK cDNA||CHUK ELISA Kit|
|CLIP1||CLIP1 Antibody||CLIP1 Protein||CLIP1 cDNA||CLIP1 ELISA Kit|
|DDIT4||DDIT4 Antibody||DDIT4 Protein||DDIT4 cDNA||DDIT4 ELISA Kit|
|DEPDC5||DEPDC5 Antibody||DEPDC5 Protein||DEPDC5 cDNA||DEPDC5 ELISA Kit|
|DEPTOR||DEPTOR Antibody||DEPTOR Protein||DEPTOR cDNA||DEPTOR ELISA Kit|
|DVL1||DVL1 Antibody||DVL1 Protein||DVL1 cDNA||DVL1 ELISA Kit|
|DVL2||DVL2 Antibody||DVL2 Protein||DVL2 cDNA||DVL2 ELISA Kit|
|DVL3||DVL3 Antibody||DVL3 Protein||DVL3 cDNA||DVL3 ELISA Kit|
|EIF4B||EIF4B Antibody||EIF4B Protein||EIF4B cDNA||EIF4B ELISA Kit|
|EIF4E||EIF4E Antibody||EIF4E Protein||EIF4E cDNA||EIF4E ELISA Kit|
|EIF4E1B||EIF4E1B Antibody||EIF4E1B Protein||EIF4E1B cDNA||EIF4E1B ELISA Kit|
|EIF4E2||EIF4E2 Antibody||EIF4E2 Protein||EIF4E2 cDNA||EIF4E2 ELISA Kit|
|EIF4EBP1||EIF4EBP1 Antibody||EIF4EBP1 Protein||EIF4EBP1 cDNA||EIF4EBP1 ELISA Kit|
|FLCN||FLCN Antibody||FLCN Protein||FLCN cDNA||FLCN ELISA Kit|
|FNIP1||FNIP1 Antibody||FNIP1 Protein||FNIP1 cDNA||FNIP1 ELISA Kit|
|FNIP2||FNIP2 Antibody||FNIP2 Protein||FNIP2 cDNA||FNIP2 ELISA Kit|
|FZD1||FZD1 Antibody||FZD1 Protein||FZD1 cDNA||FZD1 ELISA Kit|
|FZD10||FZD10 Antibody||FZD10 Protein||FZD10 cDNA||FZD10 ELISA Kit|
|FZD2||FZD2 Antibody||FZD2 Protein||FZD2 cDNA||FZD2 ELISA Kit|
|FZD3||FZD3 Antibody||FZD3 Protein||FZD3 cDNA||FZD3 ELISA Kit|