The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane. Complement cascade is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma that is activated by the presence of pathogens.
There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. The main consequences of complement activation are the opsonization of pathogens, the recruitment of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells, and the direct killing of pathogens.
Blood coagulation, also known as coagulation, is a series of coordinated and calcium-dependent proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions, culminating in the formation of thrombin, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin clot. Protease-activated receptors, such as those activated by thrombin, are members of G protein-coupled receptors and function as a mediator of innate immunity.
The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). Kinin peptides are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes, involving the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, inflammatory processes, and the cardio-protective effects of preconditioning.
As shown in the following figure, thrombin and plasmin directly cleave complement component C3, as well as its activation fragments. Moreover, thrombin can cleave C5 into C5a, which occurs independently of C3 and therefore represents a bypass of the three traditional complement-activation pathways (that is, the classical, lectin and alternative pathways).
The convergence between complement and the clotting system extends far beyond the chemical nature of the complement and coagulation components, both of which form proteolytic cascades. Complement effectors directly enhance coagulation.
|PROC||PROC Antibody||PROC Protein||PROC cDNA||PROC ELISA Kit|
|PROCR||PROCR Antibody||PROCR Protein||PROCR cDNA||PROCR ELISA Kit|
|PROS1||PROS1 Antibody||PROS1 Protein||PROS1 cDNA||PROS1 ELISA Kit|
|SERPINA1||SERPINA1 Antibody||SERPINA1 Protein||SERPINA1 cDNA||SERPINA1 ELISA Kit|
|SERPINA5||SERPINA5 Antibody||SERPINA5 Protein||SERPINA5 cDNA||SERPINA5 ELISA Kit|
|SERPINB2||SERPINB2 Antibody||SERPINB2 Protein||SERPINB2 cDNA||SERPINB2 ELISA Kit|
|SERPINC1||SERPINC1 Antibody||SERPINC1 Protein||SERPINC1 cDNA||SERPINC1 ELISA Kit|
|SERPIND1||SERPIND1 Antibody||SERPIND1 Protein||SERPIND1 cDNA||SERPIND1 ELISA Kit|
|SERPINE1||SERPINE1 Antibody||SERPINE1 Protein||SERPINE1 cDNA||SERPINE1 ELISA Kit|
|SERPINF2||SERPINF2 Antibody||SERPINF2 Protein||SERPINF2 cDNA||SERPINF2 ELISA Kit|
|SERPING1||SERPING1 Antibody||SERPING1 Protein||SERPING1 cDNA||SERPING1 ELISA Kit|
|TFPI||TFPI Antibody||TFPI Protein||TFPI cDNA||TFPI ELISA Kit|
|THBD||THBD Antibody||THBD Protein||THBD cDNA||THBD ELISA Kit|
|VSIG4||VSIG4 Antibody||VSIG4 Protein||VSIG4 cDNA||VSIG4 ELISA Kit|
|VTN||VTN Antibody||VTN Protein||VTN cDNA||VTN ELISA Kit|
|VWF||VWF Antibody||VWF Protein||VWF cDNA||VWF ELISA Kit|