Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway is a series of signal transduction processes mediated by transforming growth factor. TGF-β signaling pathway plays a key role in cell proliferation, interstitial production, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, organ formation, immune function and inflammatory response.
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is composed of many genes which coding secretory protein, mainly includes TGF-βs, the growth and differentiation factor (GDF) subfamily, an extensive bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamily, activin, inhibin, anti-muller hormone, follistatin (FS), mullerian inhibitor substance (MIS), etc, as well as several additional members such as myostatin (Mstn) cloned from mouse skeletal muscle. More details>>
As shown in the following figure, a wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I.
The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins.
TGF-β is a growth factor with multi-function on target cells. Almost every cell in the body produces TGF-β and has its receptor. It plays an important regulatory role in the differentiation of tissues and cells, and can stimulate or inhibit the proliferation of various cells.
In addition, it has a significant impact on the body's immune system. They play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. More details>>
|SMAD2||SMAD2 Antibody||SMAD2 Protein||SMAD2 cDNA||SMAD2 ELISA Kit|
|SMAD3||SMAD3 Antibody||SMAD3 Protein||SMAD3 cDNA||SMAD3 ELISA Kit|
|SMAD4||SMAD4 Antibody||SMAD4 Protein||SMAD4 cDNA||SMAD4 ELISA Kit|
|SMAD5||SMAD5 Antibody||SMAD5 Protein||SMAD5 cDNA||SMAD5 ELISA Kit|
|SMAD6||SMAD6 Antibody||SMAD6 Protein||SMAD6 cDNA||SMAD6 ELISA Kit|
|SMAD7||SMAD7 Antibody||SMAD7 Protein||SMAD7 cDNA||SMAD7 ELISA Kit|
|SMAD9||SMAD9 Antibody||SMAD9 Protein||SMAD9 cDNA||SMAD9 ELISA Kit|
|SMURF1||SMURF1 Antibody||SMURF1 Protein||SMURF1 cDNA||SMURF1 ELISA Kit|
|SMURF2||SMURF2 Antibody||SMURF2 Protein||SMURF2 cDNA||SMURF2 ELISA Kit|
|SP1||SP1 Antibody||SP1 Protein||SP1 cDNA||SP1 ELISA Kit|
|TFDP1||TFDP1 Antibody||TFDP1 Protein||TFDP1 cDNA||TFDP1 ELISA Kit|
|TGFB1||TGFB1 Antibody||TGFB1 Protein||TGFB1 cDNA||TGFB1 ELISA Kit|
|TGFB2||TGFB2 Antibody||TGFB2 Protein||TGFB2 cDNA||TGFB2 ELISA Kit|
|TGFB3||TGFB3 Antibody||TGFB3 Protein||TGFB3 cDNA||TGFB3 ELISA Kit|
|TGFBR1||TGFBR1 Antibody||TGFBR1 Protein||TGFBR1 cDNA||TGFBR1 ELISA Kit|
|TGFBR2||TGFBR2 Antibody||TGFBR2 Protein||TGFBR2 cDNA||TGFBR2 ELISA Kit|
|TGIF1||TGIF1 Antibody||TGIF1 Protein||TGIF1 cDNA||TGIF1 ELISA Kit|
|TGIF2||TGIF2 Antibody||TGIF2 Protein||TGIF2 cDNA||TGIF2 ELISA Kit|
|THBS1||THBS1 Antibody||THBS1 Protein||THBS1 cDNA||THBS1 ELISA Kit|
|TNF||TNF Antibody||TNF Protein||TNF cDNA||TNF ELISA Kit|