Transforming growth factor β signaling pathway is a series of signal transduction processes mediated by transforming growth factor. TGF-β signaling pathway plays a key role in cell proliferation, interstitial production, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, organ formation, immune function and inflammatory response. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins.
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|LTBP1||LTBP1 Antibody||LTBP1 Protein||LTBP1 cDNA||LTBP1 ELISA Kit|
|MAPK1||MAPK1 Antibody||MAPK1 Protein||MAPK1 cDNA||MAPK1 ELISA Kit|
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|SMAD1||SMAD1 Antibody||SMAD1 Protein||SMAD1 cDNA||SMAD1 ELISA Kit|
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