TSPO Antibody

Code CSB-RA025168A0HU
Size US$350
  • Western Blot
    Positive WB detected in: Hela whole cell lysate, MCF-7 whole cell lysate, HepG2 whole cell lysate, A549 whole cell lysate, Mouse kidney tissue
    All lanes: PBR antibody at 1.2μg/ml
    Goat polyclonal to rabbit IgG at 1/50000 dilution
    Predicted band size: 19, 11 KDa
    Observed band size: 19 KDa

  • IHC image of CSB-RA025168A0HU diluted at 1:117 and staining in paraffin-embedded human pancreatic cancer performed on a Leica BondTM system. After dewaxing and hydration, antigen retrieval was mediated by high pressure in a citrate buffer (pH 6.0). Section was blocked with 10% normal goat serum 30min at RT. Then primary antibody (1% BSA) was incubated at 4°C overnight. The primary is detected by a biotinylated secondary antibody and visualized using an HRP conjugated SP system.

  • IHC image of CSB-RA025168A0HU diluted at 1:117 and staining in paraffin-embedded human colon cancer performed on a Leica BondTM system. After dewaxing and hydration, antigen retrieval was mediated by high pressure in a citrate buffer (pH 6.0). Section was blocked with 10% normal goat serum 30min at RT. Then primary antibody (1% BSA) was incubated at 4°C overnight. The primary is detected by a biotinylated secondary antibody and visualized using an HRP conjugated SP system.

  • Immunofluorescence staining of PC3 cells with CSB-RA025168A0HU at 1:39, counter-stained with DAPI. The cells were fixed in 4% formaldehyde, permeabilized using 0.2% Triton X-100 and blocked in 10% normal Goat Serum. The cells were then incubated with the antibody overnight at 4°C. The secondary antibody was Alexa Fluor 488-congugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L).

  • Immunoprecipitating PTGS2 in Hela whole cell lysate
    Lane 1: Rabbit control IgG instead of CSB-RA025168A0HU in Hela whole cell lysate. For western blotting, a HRP-conjugated Protein G antibody was used as the secondary antibody (1/2000)
    Lane 2: CSB-RA025168A0HU (3μg) + Hela whole cell lysate (500μg)
    Lane 3: Hela whole cell lysate (20μg)

  • Overlay histogram showing HepG2 cells stained with CSB-RA025168A0HU (red line) at 1:50. The cells were fixed with 70% Ethylalcohol (18h) and then permeabilized with 0.3% Triton X-100 for 2 min. The cells were then incubated in 1x PBS /10% normal goat serum to block non-specific protein-protein interactions followed by primary antibody for 1 h at 4°C. The secondary antibody used was FITC goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) at 1/200 dilution for 1 h at 4°C. Control antibody (green line) was used under the same conditions. Acquisition of >10,000 events was performed.

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Product Details

Uniprot No. P30536
Target Names TSPO
Alternative Names Benzodiazapine receptor (peripheral) antibody; Benzodiazepine peripheral binding site antibody; BPBS antibody; BZRP antibody; DBI antibody; IBP antibody; Isoquinoline carboxamide-binding protein antibody; MBR antibody; mDRC antibody; Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor antibody; PBR antibody; PBS antibody; Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor antibody; Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor-related protein antibody; Peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor antibody; Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor antibody; pk18 antibody; PKBS antibody; PTBR antibody; Ptbzr antibody; PTBZR02 antibody; RATPTBZR02 antibody; translocator protein (18kDa) antibody; Translocator protein antibody; Tspo antibody; Tspo1 antibody; TSPOA_HUMAN antibody
Species Reactivity Human, Mouse
Immunogen A synthesized peptide derived from human TSPO
Immunogen Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Conjugate Non-conjugated
Clonality Monoclonal
Isotype Rabbit IgG
Purification Method Affinity-chromatography
Concentration It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
Buffer Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.
Form Liquid
Tested Applications ELISA, WB, IHC, IF, FC, IP
Recommended Dilution
Application Recommended Dilution
WB 1:500-1:5000
IHC 1:50-1:200
IF 1:20-1:200
IP 1:200-1:1000
Protocols ELISA Protocol
Western Blotting(WB) Protocol
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Protocol
Immunofluorescence (IF) Protocol
Flow Cytometry (FC) Protocol
Immunoprecipitation (IP) Protocol
Troubleshooting and FAQs Antibody FAQs
Storage Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time maybe differs from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.

Target Data

Function Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism
Gene References into Functions
  1. An increase in the expression levels of Tspo mRNA is not necessarily a good diagnostic biomarker in most cancers with changes not being large enough to be significantly different when detected by in situ hybridisation. PMID: 30044440
  2. Suggest that altered TSPO distribution in the cerebellum, and potentially in other regions (e.g. the hippocampus), may be a marker of pathophysiology in systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID: 27387599
  3. Effects of genetic variants in the TSPO gene on protein structure and stability PMID: 29641545
  4. PET study found increased TSPO availability, suggestive of predominantly microglial activation, in the anterior cingulate cortex during a moderate to severe major depressive episode. A potential contribution of suicidality to the elevated TSPO in major depressive disorder warrants further research in adequately powered studies. PMID: 28939116
  5. Study found significantly lower levels of activated microglia in the brains of living alcohol dependent subjects compared to healthy controls as measured with [11C]PBR28 PET. Importantly, exploratory analyses suggest that lower [11C]PBR28 VT values are associated with greater alcohol dependence severity and more reported drinks per day over the previous month. PMID: 28242869
  6. Authors investigate the function of TSPO in cholesterol efflux from the RPE cells. We demonstrate in RPE cells that TSPO specific ligands promoted cholesterol efflux to acceptor (apo)lipoprotein and human serum, while loss of TSPO resulted in impaired cholesterol efflux. PMID: 28973423
  7. suggest that both of the most important proapoptotic and anticancer proteins, p53 and TSPO PMID: 26378498
  8. Study shows that fibromyalgia patients with the translocator protein high affinity binding genotype reported a higher pain intensity and more severe fibromyalgia symptoms compared to mixed/low affinity binders, and this was modulated by interaction with the serotonin transporter gene. PMID: 27448744
  9. Genome-wide significant (GWS) associations in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based tests (P < 5 x 10(-8)) were identified for SNPs in PFDN1/HBEGF, USP6NL/ECHDC3, and BZRAP1-AS1. PMID: 28183528
  10. TSPO mutations in rats and a human polymorphism impair the rate of steroid synthesis. PMID: 29074640
  11. Findings suggest lower glial density or an altered activation state with lower TSPO expression in the hippocampus of alcohol dependent patients. PMID: 28072413
  12. demonstrate a consistent down-regulation of TSPO mRNA and protein in macrophages activated to a pro-inflammatory, or 'M1' phenotype PMID: 28968465
  13. These findings have important implications for understanding the biology of TSPO in activated macrophages and microglia in humans. PMID: 28530125
  14. TSPO may serve a range of functions that can be viewed as downstream regulatory effects of its primary, evolutionary conserved role in cell metabolism and energy production. PMID: 28103132
  15. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the kinetic properties of the novel third-generation TSPO PET ligand (18)F-GE180 in humans: 2TCM4k is the optimal method to quantify the brain uptake, 90 min is the optimal scan length, and the Logan approach could be used to generate parametric maps. Although these control subjects have shown relatively low VT, the methodology presented here forms the basis for quantificati PMID: 27261523
  16. demonstrate rapid decrease in TSPO binding to the high affinity site induced by exposure to cigarette smoke PMID: 27939322
  17. Study shows that TSPO's mitochondrial functions include modulation of nuclear gene expression via mitochondrial-nuclear signaling which can suggests whereby TSPO can control several vital cell functions, which has major implications for the whole organism in health and disease. PMID: 28387723
  18. TSPO is an ancient bacterial receptor/stress sensor that has developed additional interactions, partners, and roles in its mitochondrial outer membrane environment in eukaryotes. PMID: 27074410
  19. Unlike the strictly mitochondrial localisation of PBR/TSPO, PBR-S (isoform which lacks exon 2) has a punctate distribution throughout the cytosol that co-localises with lysosomes in HeLa, HEK-293, MDA-MB-231, BJ and U87-MG cells. PMID: 28263860
  20. [(18)F]PBR102 and [(18)F]PBR111 have distinct metabolic profiles in rat and non-human primates. Radiometabolites contributed to non-specific binding and confounded in vivo brain analysis of [(18)F]PBR102 in rodents; the impact in primates was less pronounced. Both [(18)F]PBR102 and [(18)F]PBR111 are suitable for PET imaging of TSPO in vivo. In vitro metabolite studies can be used to predict in vivo radioligand metabolism PMID: 27699720
  21. the epigenetic regulation of TSPO PMID: 28004979
  22. the effects of PK11195 on meningioma were associated the decrease of allopregnanolone biosynthesis, which was mediated by TSPO. PMID: 26835706
  23. Study demonstrates that TSPO has an anti-inflammatory role in endothelial activation through the inhibition of VCAM1 and regulation of mitochondrial function in endothelial cells. PMID: 26608360
  24. Study focuses on the current understanding of TSPO interplay with reactive oxygen species and the voltage-dependent anion channel to which it binds, in the regulation of cell mitophagy. [review] PMID: 26551691
  25. The authors discuss findings about TSPO and its function in the steroidogenesis which are inconclusive at this time. [Review] PMID: 26551695
  26. Studies confirmed that TSPO expression increases with tumor grade in astrocytomas but also that some overlap exists between Low-grade and anaplastic lesions. PMID: 26551696
  27. This work implicates TSPO in the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity and in the control of mitochondrial ROS production, ultimately favoring tissue regeneration. PMID: 27054921
  28. differential expression in children with allergic asthma PMID: 25979194
  29. We conclude that ScBsAbAgn-2/TSPO targeting of glioblastoma cell lines can be achieved in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 26898800
  30. Exposure of cells to CS resulted in alternation of biomolecules expressed by CLs peroxidation, reduction of TSPO binding, and depletion of the mitochondrial potential. This irreversible damage was enhanced in the presence of saliva PMID: 25968977
  31. Study show that TSPO is highly expressed in human glioma and correlates with grade and represents a promising target in human glioma imaging for detection and staging. PMID: 26517124
  32. Elevations in microglial activity can be measured in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) using radioligands specific for the 18kD translocator-protein (TSPO), which is expressed on microglia. PMID: 26472628
  33. Our preliminary results suggest that TSPO brain imaging in GBM may be a useful tool for predicting tumor progression at follow-up and may be less susceptible to changes in blood-brain barrier permeability than (18)F-FET. PMID: 26182972
  34. Data suggest that TSPO expression is tightly associated with metabolic state of adipocytes and differentiation of preadipocytes into white/brown adipocytes; TSPO expression may improve metabolic status of adipocytes and regulate glucose homeostasis. PMID: 26123521
  35. Our findings highlight TSPO as a candidate for future investigations of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and support the involvement of mitochondrial membrane components in this serious treatment side effect. PMID: 25560467
  36. TSPO is a biomarkers that can predict recovery from brain injury and myocarditis PMID: 25123025
  37. Data indicate that variation in the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) gene affects susceptibility to topic dermatitis (AD). PMID: 24998961
  38. This study identifies key cholesterol binding enhancement motif in translocator protein 18 kDa. PMID: 25635829
  39. Results show that TSPO is involved in cell death induction by NH4Cl; TSPO ligands, depending on their concentration, bimodally modulated NH4Cl-induced toxicity PMID: 24168369
  40. As demonstrated within a group of stroke and GBM patients, (123)I-CLINDE SPECT can be used for quantitative assessment of TSPO expression in vivo PMID: 25453044
  41. it appears that 10(-5) M FGIN-1-27 reduces cell viability, cell metabolism, and mitochondrial function. PMID: 24532136
  42. TSPO expression is able to distinguish differences in the severity of myocarditis between male subjects and female subjects. PMID: 24402571
  43. Increased TSPO expression and microglial activation are not associated with cocaine abuse. PMID: 25057196
  44. Data indicate that targeting 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) reduces macrophage lipid content and prevents macrophage foam cell formation. PMID: 24814875
  45. These findings suggest that TSPO is highly expressed in reactive retinal microglia and a promising target to control microglial reactivity during retinal degeneration. PMID: 24397957
  46. Both IRF-4 and IBP might be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. PMID: 22528235
  47. XBD173 blockade provides a practical means of estimating VND for TSPO targeting radioligands. PMID: 24643083
  48. data indicate a nominal association between the rs6971 SNP in the TSPO gene and the diagnosis of BD. PMID: 23942012
  49. The mitochondrial TSPO protein inhibits HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein. degradation pathway PMID: 24403586
  50. PET imaging with [11C]PBR28 in subjects with mild-to-moderate depression and C-reactive protein levels <5 mg/L do not show that depressed subjects have neuroinflammation or microglial activation. PMID: 23850810
  51. TSPO is a promising molecular marker for imaging inflammatory cell activation in the retina. PMID: 24599476
  52. increases in TSPO levels at different stages of breast cancer progression results in the acquisition of distinct properties associated with malignancy PMID: 23967175
  53. Data indicate that benzoxazolone derivative showed affinity binding with 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO). PMID: 24050790
  54. brain (11)C-PBR28 SUV is sensitive to TSPO genotype PMID: 23785173
  55. We suggest that TSPO protein expression is a potential peripheral biomarker of multiple sclerosis PMID: 22956240
  56. These data are crucial for indentifying of regulatory processes for TSPO expression. Pathogenetic interconnection between MAPK signaling partway and TSPO is important for novel therapeutic approaches in melanoma treatment. PMID: 23718075
  57. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) binding, shown to reflect activated microglia, was greater in patients with mild cognitive impairment. MCI patients with PBR values higher than the control mean +0.5 S.D. developed dementia within 5 years. PMID: 22892349
  58. role in melanoma growth and progression PMID: 23080515
  59. Voxel-based imaging of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in high-resolution PET. PMID: 23281426
  60. TSPO genotype influences PBR28 binding in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 22968319
  61. These findings show that interactions between the TSPO and the glutamatergic system may play a role in tumor development of glioblastoma cells. PMID: 22732722
  62. Intact TSPO appears to be able to counteract the invasive and angiogenic characteristics related to the aggressiveness of U118MG glioblastoma cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID: 22547081
  63. Implication of TSPO in the thyroid cancer cell response to oxidative stress suggested its potential role in the regulation of thyroid cancer cell response to treatment with radioiodine. PMID: 22645299
  64. This review describes the principles of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the rationale and challenges in targeting the TSPO as a means of quantifying microglial activation in vivo. PMID: 22050847
  65. Testing for the rs6971 polymorphism may allow quantitative interpretation of TSPO PET studies with new generation of TSPO PET radioligands. PMID: 22472607
  66. The genotype with the lowest TSPO expression levels in adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) was the normal pregnenolone production genotype, the Ala147Thr single nucleotide polymorphism confirmed an excess of the Thr147 allele in ASAD patients. PMID: 22348616
  67. PBR can inhibit endothelial activation through inhibition of mitochondrial ROS and/or VDAC-1 expression in endothelial cells PMID: 22616995
  68. Apoptosis modulation by PMA occurs independently of TsPO expression in squamous cell carcinoma cells PMID: 22629859
  69. these experiments constitute the first in-depth functional analysis of the human TSPO gene promoter and its transcriptional regulation PMID: 21958735
  70. PK 11195 exerted a suppressive effect on VDAC1 and caused an increase in TSPO gene expression or protein levels. PMID: 22127435
  71. increased expression of TSPO in temporal lobe epilepsy PMID: 22238156
  72. An 18-kDa Translocator Protein polymorphism explains differences in binding affinity of the PET radioligand PBR28. PMID: 22008728
  73. These results further define TSPO as an informative marker of glial activation in multiple sclerosis PMID: 20872081
  74. The present data indicate that [(11)C]vinpocetine may serve as a molecular imaging biomarker of the activity of the TSPO system PMID: 21320609
  75. REVIEW article PMID: 21498529
  76. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the chemicals, hormones, and molecular mechanisms regulating Tspo gene expression under physiological conditions in a tissue- and disease-specific manner. PMID: 20600583
  77. Overexpression of translocator protein is associated with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID: 20222126
  78. TSPO is expressed in macrophages in human carotid atherosclerosis PMID: 20056222
  79. Following exposure of saliva to cigarette smoke a three-fold decrease in the affinity of salivary TSPO to its specific ligand, [(3)H]PK 11195 (p < 0.01) occurred in the cellular fraction of the saliva. PMID: 20491643
  80. reduction in [(11)C]PBR28 binding may not be interpreted simply as a reduction in TSPO density PMID: 20424634
  81. High TSPO protein levels are associated with oral cancer. PMID: 20085808
  82. Results demonstrate that the Ala147Thr spontaneous amino acid substitution within TSPO is able to affect pregnenolone production, and should encourage further studies to investigate its potential role in polygenic dyslipidemias. PMID: 19846611
  83. Overexpression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor is associated with colorectal cancer PMID: 12374690
  84. This gene is amplified in MDA-MB-231 aggressive breast cancer cells PMID: 12547158
  85. demonstrated that PBR is expressed in mesenchymal stem cells and that their ligands affect their proliferation and differentiation PMID: 14584048
  86. These results indicate that elevated peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) expression is not common in aggressive tumors, but may be limited to certain cancers where elevated PBR expression is associated with tumor progression. PMID: 14626449
  87. High expression of PBR in this patient subgroup may be used to identify a new high risk population in breast cancer for which a more specific therapy would be beneficial. PMID: 15041726
  88. involvement of PBRs in human pancreatic beta-cell function and survival. PMID: 15296476
  89. our results supported the hypothesis that PBR controls T-cell maturation and suggested mechanisms through which PBR may regulate thymocyte-positive selection. PMID: 15473257
  90. Our results represent first evidence of PBRs in parathyroid glands and suggest for them a role in influencing PTH release. A clear trend of PBR up-regulation in parathyroid adenoma was also found. PMID: 15648546
  91. the subcellular localisation of PBR defines its function and that this receptor could be a possible target for new strategies against cancer PMID: 15769477
  92. Study provides new and important evidence that variation in the PBR gene influences susceptibility to panic disorder. PMID: 16511838
  93. the intensity and extent of staining for PBR had a strong direct correlation with the grade of malignancy of the tumor, along with proliferative and apoptotic indices. The highest expression of PBR was in glioblastomas grade IV. PMID: 16868661
  94. Our results showed an up-regulation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in platelets of FM patients, and this seems to be related to the severity of fibromyalgic symptoms. PMID: 16919618
  95. TSPO is located in mitochondrial membranes of HT-29 and reveal that its activation induces a rise in cytosolic Ca(2+), leading to the stimulation of Cl(-) secretion. PMID: 17561806
  96. TSPO expression evaluation is a useful biological marker of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder PMID: 18054208
  97. These findings reveal a previously unidentified pathway of the membrane integration of MOM proteins with multiple TMSs of the PBR. PMID: 18158327
  98. Sharp inhibition of apoptosis and changes in the levels of cell proliferation in tumor cells were paralleled by decreased expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in patients with squamous cell carcinoma & skin melanoma. PMID: 18256758
  99. VDAC activation by the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), implications for apoptosis. PMID: 18670869
  100. TSPO may serve to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in response to anti-cancer drugs such as erucylphosphohomocholine PMID: 18791274

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Subcellular Location Mitochondrion membrane, Multi-pass membrane protein
Protein Families TspO/BZRP family
Tissue Specificity Found in many tissue types. Expressed at the highest levels under normal conditions in tissues that synthesize steroids.
Database Links

HGNC: 1158

OMIM: 109610

KEGG: hsa:706

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000328973

UniGene: Hs.202

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