Ageing is the process of becoming older. Generally speaking, the term refers especially to human beings, many animals, and fungi. Cell aging is the result of physical and chemical assaults, of molecular exhaustion, and of physiological attempts to compensate for damage. Examples include toxic adducts to macromolecules, attrition of chromosomes, DNA damage, and impaired organelles.
Metabolic changes are hallmarks of aging and genetic and pharmacologic alterations of relevant pathways can extend life span. Among these pathway, the fundamental theory of ageing is ROS.
ROS, also known as reactive oxygen species, are by-products of the respiratory chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where redox reactions create a proton gradient that drives ATP generation. Superoxide radicals are produced by complex (I) and complex (III) of the respiratory chain.
Three scavenging mechanisms (including superoxide dismutase [(SOD), mitochondrion and cytosol], catalase (peroxisome), and glutathione peroxidase (mitochondrion and cytosol)) act in a stepwise fashion to remove these radicals. First, SOD detoxifies the superoxide and creates hydrogen peroxide. This intermediary can form the more dangerous hydroxyl radical if not removed. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase prevent hydroxyl radical formation by converting hydrogen peroxide into water. Increased SOD activity without changes to catalase or glutathione peroxidase can be harmful due to accumulation of damaging hydroxyl radicals.
Increased ROS production through desynchronized respiration or lower ROS scavenging capacity with age offers an attractive model to explain damage to proteins through carbonylation or to DNA through guanine modifications. With their proximity to the respiratory chain, mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial DNA that lacks protective nucleosomes are especially prone to damage.
|ATF6||ATF6 Antibody||ATF6 Protein||ATF6 cDNA||ATF6 ELISA Kit|
|BACH1||BACH1 Antibody||BACH1 Protein||BACH1 cDNA||BACH1 ELISA Kit|
|CAT||CAT Antibody||CAT Protein||CAT cDNA||CAT ELISA Kit|
|EDEM1||EDEM1 Antibody||EDEM1 Protein||EDEM1 cDNA||EDEM1 ELISA Kit|
|GADD45G||GADD45G Antibody||GADD45G Protein||GADD45G cDNA||GADD45G ELISA Kit|
|GPX1||GPX1 Antibody||GPX1 Protein||GPX1 cDNA||GPX1 ELISA Kit|
|GSR||GSR Antibody||GSR Protein||GSR cDNA||GSR ELISA Kit|
|NFE2L2||NFE2L2 Antibody||NFE2L2 Protein||NFE2L2 cDNA||NFE2L2 ELISA Kit|
|POT1||POT1 Antibody||POT1 Protein||POT1 cDNA||POT1 ELISA Kit|
|PRDX1||PRDX1 Antibody||PRDX1 Protein||PRDX1 cDNA||PRDX1 ELISA Kit|
|PRDX2||PRDX2 Antibody||PRDX2 Protein||PRDX2 cDNA||PRDX2 ELISA Kit|
|ROS1||ROS1 Antibody||ROS1 Protein||ROS1 cDNA||ROS1 ELISA Kit|
|SIRT1||SIRT1 Antibody||SIRT1 Protein||SIRT1 cDNA||SIRT1 ELISA Kit|
|SIRT6||SIRT6 Antibody||SIRT6 Protein||SIRT6 cDNA||SIRT6 ELISA Kit|
|SOD3||SOD3 Antibody||SOD3 Protein||SOD3 cDNA||SOD3 ELISA Kit|
|TERF1||TERF1 Antibody||TERF1 Protein||TERF1 cDNA||TERF1 ELISA Kit|
|TERF2||TERF2 Antibody||TERF2 Protein||TERF2 cDNA||TERF2 ELISA Kit|
|TP53||TP53 Antibody||TP53 Protein||TP53 cDNA||TP53 ELISA Kit|
|XRCC5||XRCC5 Antibody||XRCC5 Protein||XRCC5 cDNA||XRCC5 ELISA Kit|
|XRCC6||XRCC6 Antibody||XRCC6 Protein||XRCC6 cDNA||XRCC6 ELISA Kit|