Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis

Fc gamma receptors generate signals within their cells through an important activation motif, ITAM. All of the Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Fc gamma receptor is essential participant in many immune system effector functions, such as phagocytosis of opsonized, release of inflammatory mediators and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Phagocytosis is triggered by clustering of FcγR at sites where leukocytes make contact with the opsonized particles. It is an essential component of the innate immune response and plays a crucial role in host-defense mechanisms by the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types take part in this process in higher organisms, including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes. Upon opsonization with antibodies (IgG), foreign extracellular materials are recognized by Fc gamma receptors. Cross-linking of Fc gamma receptors initiates a variety of signals mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins, which lead through the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane remodeling to the formation of phagosomes. Nascent phagosomes undergo a process of maturation that involves fusion with lysosomes. The acquisition of lysosomal proteases and release of reactive oxygen species are crucial for digestion of engulfed materials in phagosomes.

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